All languages have demonstratives, but their form, meaning and use vary tremendously across the languages of the world. This book presents the first large-scale analysis of demonstratives from a cross-linguistic and diachronic perspective. It is based on a representative sample of 85 languages. The first part of the book analyzes demonstratives from a synchronic point of view, examining their morphological structures, semantic features, syntactic functions, and pragmatic uses in spoken and written discourse. The second part concentrates on diachronic issues, in particular on the development of demonstratives into grammatical markers. Across languages demonstratives provide a frequent historical source for definite articles, relative and third person pronouns, nonverbal copulas, sentence connectives, directional preverbs, focus markers, expletives, and many other grammatical markers. The book describes the different mechanisms by which demonstratives grammaticalize and argues that the evolution of grammatical markers from demonstratives is crucially distinct from other cases of grammaticalization.
Part 1 Introduction: preliminary remarks; towards a definition of demonstratives; outline and literature; language sample. Part 2 Morphology: demonstratives in Guuyu, Ambulas, Ewondo, and Korean; the morphology of demonstratives; summary. Part 3 Semantics: the semantic features of demonstratives; the features of demonstratives - a systematic overview. Part 4 Syntax: demonstrative pronoun and demonstrative determiners; demonstrative adverbs; demonstrative identifiers; summary. Part 5 Pragmatic use: the exophoric use; the anaphoric use; the discourse deictic use; the recognitional use; the special status of exophoric demonstrative; summary. Part 6 Grammaticalization: some general principles of grammaticalization; criteria of the grammaticalization of demonstratives; the grammaticalization of pronominal demonstrative; the grammaticalization of adnominal demonstratives; the grammaticalization of adverbial demonstratives; the grammaticalization of identificational demonstratives; the diachronic origin of demonstrative; summary. Part 7 Conclusion: major findings; future research. Appendices: data sources; the inflectional features of pronominal demonstrative.
Series: Typological Studies in Language
Number Of Pages: 217
Published: 31st December 1999
Country of Publication: NL
Dimensions (cm): 24.0 x 16.0
Weight (kg): 0.3