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Democratic Individuality - Alan Gilbert

Democratic Individuality

Paperback

Published: 24th December 1990
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This ambitious and sweeping book presents a powerful argument against moral relativism and in favor of the objectivity of a theory of democratic individuality. Unlike much recent work in this field, the book does not simply adumbrate such a view. Rather, it develops the parallels between various versions of scientific and moral realism, and then reinterprets the history and internal logic of democratic theory, maintaining, for example, that the abolition of slavery represents genuine moral progress. The book also recasts the clashes between Marxist and Weberian, radical and liberal sociologies in the light of these moral claims, and sketches the institutions of a radical democracy.

'The book presents an acute, historically informed, and unusually optimistic argument about moral progress. Striking in its intellectual breadth, [it] makes a significant contribution to the case that the social sciences are, at bottom, moral sciences.' -- Joshua Cohen, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Prefacep. xiii
Introductionp. 1
Moral relativism and slaveryp. 1
Cultural plurality, feminism, communitarianism, and a theory of individualityp. 8
Individuality, diverse egalitarianisms, and objectivityp. 11
Outline of the argumentp. 14
The Theory of Political Freedom and Individuality: Slavery, Mutual Regard, and Modern Egalitarianism
A common good and justice in warp. 21
Some leading features of moral realismp. 21
A common good and ethical discoveryp. 26
Aristotle's two types of just warp. 34
The objectivity of Aristotle's political and moral theoryp. 38
Montesquieu's response to Aristotle on slavery and warp. 44
Hegel's theory of freedomp. 52
Hegel's two kinds of just warp. 56
Liberalism, Marxism, and democratic internationalismp. 62
The capacity for moral personality and the ambiguities of liberalismp. 70
Six criticisms of moral objectivityp. 70
Berlin on freedomp. 71
Popper on moral advancep. 74
Barber on democracy, reasonable compromise, and truthp. 76
Rawls on slavery and democratic autonomyp. 79
Taylor on history and moral personalityp. 84
Fishkin and metaethical consensusp. 85
Eudaemonism without history: Finnis, Hampshire, and Putnamp. 89
Conflicts of goods: Wiggins on deliberationp. 93
Walzer on relativism and democracyp. 94
Harman's inadvertent moral explanationp. 99
Why internalism failsp. 104
Empiricism, neo-Kantianism, and realism in science and ethicsp. 108
A realist alternativep. 109
The justification and decline of positivismp. 114
The eccentricities of ethical empiricismp. 123
Theory saturatedness, revolutionary change, and neo-Kantianismp. 125
Realism as theory-dependent insight into the worldp. 130
Scientific epistemology as a guide to semanticsp. 136
Semantics-generated moral relativismsp. 138
Theoretical progress and semantic complexityp. 142
Neo-Kantianism and moral realismp. 149
The best conventionalist challenge: a mimicking of realismp. 150
The uneven development of branches of knowledge objectionp. 156
The arbitrary historical continuities criticismp. 157
The dissolution of theory in practice objectionp. 158
The Western relativity of progress objectionp. 160
The nonreplicability of ways of life argumentp. 165
Individual moral view quasi-realismp. 167
Pure quasi-realismp. 170
The slenderness of realism objectionp. 172
Putnam's criticisms of realism and moral realismp. 173
Is reference indeterminate?p. 177
Causality and borderline casesp. 183
Value presuppositions versus moral objectivityp. 188
Democracy and Individuality in Modern Social Theory
Historical materialism and justicep. 197
Marx, Weber, and moral objectivityp. 197
Three interpretations of moral epistemologyp. 199
What can Marxists fairly say about injustices?p. 206
Marx's and Engels's metaethical ambiguitiesp. 209
Engels's and Marx's critiques of Proudhon's "eternal justice"p. 213
Utilitarianism, contractarianism, and glaring social inequalitiesp. 220
Scientific realism and moral realismp. 222
Structural and ethical explanation: why injustice needs to advertisep. 229
The indeterminate reference of Marxian exploitationp. 235
Two kinds of historical progressp. 239
The defectiveness of utilitarianismp. 239
The historical dialectic of conflicting moral standardsp. 244
Proletarian self-emancipation and political community: a different kind of moral progressp. 247
Mill, Rawls, and Marxian communismp. 253
Liberal and radical accounts of moral progressp. 256
Two ethical models of Marxian historical theoryp. 258
The Aristotelian lineage of Marx's eudaemonismp. 263
Eudaemonism and alienationp. 264
A theory of the selfp. 271
Deliberation and democratic internationalismp. 283
Scientific and ethical realism in Aristotle's and Marx's economicsp. 288
Miller's criticisms of moral objectivityp. 292
Radical democracy and individualityp. 305
Twentieth-century revolutions: is Marx's first stage of communism viable?p. 305
Socialist concessions to class, status, and political hierarchyp. 309
How democratic is radical democracy?p. 316
Extreme democracy as a challenge to Chinese status and political hierarchyp. 331
How radical is radical democracy?p. 334
Democracy as a cluster propertyp. 345
The Protestant Ethic and Marxian theoryp. 348
Democracy and today's political sciencep. 348
Does neo-Kantianism cohere with liberal social theory?p. 352
Can a Marxian accept The Protestant Ethic's basic claim?p. 355
Can Weber account for Protestant radicalism?p. 361
Moral explanation in The Protestant Ethicp. 365
Is The Protestant Ethic liberal?p. 369
Nationalism and the dangers of predatory "liberalism"p. 375
Patriotism and internationalismp. 375
Weber's four nationalismsp. 377
Weber's social theory and contemporary politicsp. 382
Can Weber explain internationalism?p. 388
Weberian tensions in Lenin's theoryp. 394
War and democratic internationalism: the Soviet and Weimar revolutionsp. 397
Democracy and statusp. 402
An unexpected theoretical contrastp. 402
Eugenic theory and "being German"p. 406
Elective affinities and academic racismp. 407
The American South as test casep. 413
A Marxian critique of Weberp. 415
Southern multiracial movementsp. 419
Bureaucracy, socialism, and a common goodp. 423
Intention, responsibility, and sociological reductionismp. 423
How radicals become saintsp. 426
Are Weberian politicians responsible?p. 430
Antiradical ideology and today's social sciencep. 434
Weber's rejection of the Russian Revolutionp. 440
Is bureaucratic domination necessary?p. 445
Radical democratic rejoindersp. 449
Levels of ethical disagreement and the controversy between neo-Kantianism and realismp. 451
The complexity of core standardsp. 452
Empirical conflictsp. 453
Moral controversiesp. 454
Hard cases and ethical theoryp. 456
Naturalistic moral epistemologyp. 456
Diverse subsets of ethical argumentp. 458
Core standards and "Science as a Vocation"p. 459
Individuality and Weberian liberalismp. 464
Conclusion: the project of democratic individualityp. 467
Bibliographyp. 472
Indexp. 493
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780521387095
ISBN-10: 0521387094
Audience: Tertiary; University or College
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 528
Published: 24th December 1990
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Country of Publication: GB
Dimensions (cm): 22.8 x 15.2  x 3.0
Weight (kg): 0.77