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Democracy without Citizens : Media and the Decay of American Politics - Robert M. Entman

Democracy without Citizens

Media and the Decay of American Politics

Paperback

Published: 27th September 1990
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"The free press cannot be free," Robert Entman asserts. "Inevitably, it is dependent." In this penetrating critique of American journalism and the political process, Entman identifies a "vicious circle of interdependence" as the key dilemma facing reporters and editors. To become sophisticated citizens, he argues, Americans need high-quality, independent political journalism; yet, to stay in business while producing such journalism, news organizations would need an audience of sophisticated citizens. As Entman shows, there is no easy way out of this dilemma, which has encouraged the decay of democratic citizenship as well as the media's continuing failure to live up to their own highest ideals. Addressing widespread despair over the degeneration of presidential campaigns, Entman argues that the media system virtually compels politicians to practice demagoguery.
Entman confronts a provocative array of issues: how the media's reliance on elite groups and individuals for information inevitably slants the news, despite adherence to objectivity standards; why the media hold government accountable for its worst errors--such as scandals and foreign misadventures--only after it's too late to prevent them; how the interdependence of the media and their audience molds public opinion in ways neither group alone can control; why greater media competition does not necessarily mean better journalism; why the abolition of the FCC's Fairness Doctrine could make things worse. Entman sheds fascinating light on important news events of the past decade. He compares, for example, coverage of the failed hostage rescue in 1980, which subjected President Carter to a barrage of criticism, with coverage of the 1983 bombing that killed 241 Marines in Lebanon, an incident in which President Reagan largely escaped blame. He shows how various factors unrelated to the reality of the events themselves--the apparent popularity of Reagan and unpopularity of Carter, differences in the way the Presidents publicly framed the incidents, the potent symbols skillfully manipulated by Reagan's but not by Carter's news managers--produced two very different kinds of reportage.
Entman concludes with some thoughtful suggestions for improvement. Chiefly, he proposes the creation of subsidized, party-based news outlets as a way of promoting new modes of news gathering and analysis, of spurring the established media to more innovative coverage, and of increasing political awareness and participation. Such suggestions, along with the author's probing media criticisms, make this book essential reading for anyone concerned about the state of democracy in America.

"In Democracy Without Citizens, Robert Entman contributes some original criticism to the old debate [about the media and politics]. [He] avoids simplistically scapegoating politicians as cynical, media managers as greedy or readers and viewers as apathetic....This is an unusual departure from an often partisan and predictable body of literature."--The Los Angeles Times "One of the strengths of the book lies in its examination of the pressures on the news media and how these pressures influence political reporting."--Journal of Communication "Entman has produced a very thoroughly argued and concise text on a number of issues at the core of serious research into the relation between media, society, and the political process in the United States....it is with a sense of intellectual excitement that one reads the book, which constitutes a significant--and for once...too short--contribution to debate about media and politics in the USA."--Journal of Social Sciences "An outstanding treatment of the media and politics--perfect for my upper-level course....Indispensable."--Patrick A. Pierce, Saint Mary College "Accessible to scholars and non-scholars alike...the book is well worth reading for its ideas alone."--Journalism Quarterly "Why haven't journalists cured journalism? Entman does a thorough fact-based diagnosis of the malady. But he also shows how needed reforms get lost in the maze of the media. A well researched book by an independent-minded scholar who cares about democracy, this work will be of much and lasting value."--James David Barber, Duke University "In Democracy Without Citizens, Robert Entman contributes some original criticism to the old debate [about the media and politics]. [He] avoids simplistically scapegoating politicians as cynical, media managers as greedy or readers and viewers as apathetic....This is an unusual departure from an often partisan and predictable body of literature."--The Los Angeles Times "One of the strengths of the book lies in its examination of the pressures on the news media and how these pressures influence political reporting."--Journal of Communication "Entman has produced a very thoroughly argued and concise text on a number of issues at the core of serious research into the relation between media, society, and the political process in the United States....it is with a sense of intellectual excitement that one reads the book, which constitutes a significant--and for once...too short--contribution to debate about media and politics in the USA."--Journal of Social Sciences "An outstanding treatment of the media and politics--perfect for my upper-level course....Indispensable."--Patrick A. Pierce, Saint Mary College "Accessible to scholars and non-scholars alike...the book is well worth reading for its ideas alone."--Journalism Quarterly "Why haven't journalists cured journalism? Entman does a thorough fact-based diagnosis of the malady. But he also shows how needed reforms get lost in the maze of the media. A well researched book by an independent-minded scholar who cares about democracy, this work will be of much and lasting value."--James David Barber, Duke University "Entman's study shows how media-fed demagogy robs citizens of essential information. It also provides a guide through--and possibly out of--the contemporary dilemma of American democracy."--George Gerbner, The Annenberg School for Communication, University of Pennsylvania "An important contribution to our understanding of both the role and limitations of the press in advancing the democratic agenda."--Marvin Kalb, Joan Shorenstein Barone Center on the Press, Harvard University "A deep and profound probe into the heartland of American Journalism. Brilliantly argued, a must read."--Anthony B. Chan, University of Washington

Introductionp. 3
Understanding Media Influence
The Dilemma of Journalism: Democracy Without Citizensp. 17
Objectivity, Bias, and Slant in the Newsp. 30
Straight Talk on Slanted News: "Bias" and Accountability in Reporting Carter and Reaganp. 39
How the Media Affect What People Think--and Think They Thinkp. 75
Improving Journalism
Newspaper Competition and Free Press Ideals: Does Monopoly Matter?p. 91
Faith and Mystification in Broadcast Deregulationp. 102
Improving Journalism by Enhancing Citizenshipp. 125
Citizenship and Opinions: Data and Statistical Analysisp. 141
Public Opinion Impacts: Data and Statistical Analysisp. 144
Newspaper Competition: Data and Statistical Analysisp. 158
Notesp. 165
Bibliographyp. 205
Indexp. 223
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780195065763
ISBN-10: 019506576X
Audience: Professional
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 256
Published: 27th September 1990
Publisher: Oxford University Press Inc
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 21.9 x 13.87  x 0.36
Weight (kg): 0.22