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Dementia : Critical Issues in Psychiatry - Allen Jack Edwards

Dementia

Critical Issues in Psychiatry

Hardcover

Published: 31st March 1993
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Dementia is a state that has implications for several groups. There are, first, those who wish to assess its nature and impact in an objective and scientific fashion, using tools of research to uncover dementia's causes, effects, and parameters. The result has been a rapidly expanding literature in diverse disciplines: physiology, chemistry, neurology, psychology, and sociology, among others. Second, there are those professionals and caregivers who work di­ rectly with patients and other caregivers and who must assess and apply interventions. Third, physicians are involved in diagnosis and treatment (so far as possible) and are responsible for communicating the ominous meanings of the destructive disease process. Fourth, there are the caregivers, who accept accountability for the future of a human who increasingly shows a "robbing of the mind" in his or her behaviors. The needs and stresses of those who care for and about those with progressive dementia are among the most intense imaginable. They need support of many kinds, frequently without knowing what to ask or of whom to ask it. Finally, there are the patients, who increasingly become dependent as their mental competencies decline. They need empathic care-including answers to questions about cause, stabilization, or reversal of the de­ menting process. Even more, they need cure. Further, present and future generations need the assurance of prevention. This volume surveys present "knowledge" about dementia and its consequences.

The Nature of Dementia
Defining "Dementia"p. 1
A Definition Used in This Bookp. 5
Conditions Leading to Dementiap. 6
Pick's Diseasep. 6
Creutzfeldt-Jakob Diseasep. 7
Alzheimer's Diseasep. 7
Huntington's Disease (Chorea)p. 8
Parkinson's Diseasep. 9
Multiinfarct Dementiap. 10
Normal Pressure Hydrocephalusp. 10
The Expressions of Dementiap. 11
Memory Lossp. 13
Sensory Registerp. 13
Short-Term Memoryp. 14
Long-Term Memoryp. 15
The Brain and Dementia
The Structure of the Cortexp. 21
The Lobes of the Brainp. 21
The Working Unit of the Brain: The Neuronp. 24
The Intellectp. 26
The Nature of Intelligencep. 26
The Quality of Mindp. 33
Identifying Dementia
Dementia in the DSM-III-Rp. 38
Features of Dementiap. 38
Degrees of Impairmentp. 40
Deficits in Abstract Thoughtp. 42
Impaired Judgment and Impulse Controlp. 42
Disturbances of Higher Cortical Functionp. 43
Personality Changep. 44
Associated Featuresp. 44
Age at Onsetp. 47
Coursep. 47
Differential Diagnosisp. 50
Medical Proceduresp. 51
The Meaning of the Diagnostic Labelp. 52
Technology and Diagnosis
Data-Gathering Instrumentsp. 60
The Electroencephalogram (EEG)p. 60
Computerized Tomography (CT or "CAT" Scan)p. 64
Positron Emission Tomography (PET)p. 66
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)p. 67
Differential Diagnosisp. 68
Research on Diagnosisp. 72
Specific Effects of Dementiap. 73
Current Statusp. 74
Dementia and Psychological Testing
Commonly Used Measuresp. 80
Psychological Tests and Dementiap. 82
The Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Batteryp. 84
The Luria-Nebraska Batteryp. 85
The Wechsler Scalesp. 89
The Bender Motor Gestalt Testp. 96
The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE)p. 97
The Mental Status Questionnairep. 100
The Wechsler Memory Scalep. 102
Verbal Memory and Dementiap. 103
Language Function in Dementiap. 109
Dementia and Psychiatric Disorders
Anxietyp. 114
Depressionp. 117
Comparisons with Technologyp. 126
Treatment for Patientsp. 127
Depression in Caregiversp. 129
Ancillary Effects and Dementiap. 131
Suicidep. 133
Delusional Ideation and Behaviorp. 134
Dementia and the Patient - I
Alzheimer's Diseasep. 140
Cause and Prognosisp. 142
Coursep. 145
Multiinfarct Dementiap. 152
Cause and Prognosisp. 156
Coursep. 161
Dementia and the Patient - II
Pick's Diseasep. 167
Cause and Prognosisp. 169
Normal Pressure Hydrocephalusp. 172
Cause and Prognosisp. 173
Coursep. 174
Creutzfeldt-Jakob Diseasep. 175
Huntington's and Parkinson's Diseasesp. 176
Recent Research on Dementia in Huntington's Diseasep. 177
Cause and Prognosisp. 178
Recent Studies on Dementia in Parkinson's Diseasep. 182
Cause and Prognosisp. 184
Current Research in Drug Therapyp. 190
Geneticsp. 190
Environmental Toxinsp. 191
Neurotransmitter Deficitsp. 191
Beta Amyloidp. 192
Slow-Acting Virusp. 192
Immune System Declinep. 192
Dementia and the Family
Stress and Burdenp. 200
Research on Caregiver Burdenp. 203
Research on Sources of Burdenp. 206
Institutionalizationp. 209
Coping Strategiesp. 212
Support Groupsp. 215
Caregiver Depressionp. 218
Self-Efficacyp. 220
Respitep. 224
Therapeutic Interventionp. 226
Intervention Techniques
Rationale for Interventionp. 229
Assumptionsp. 229
Testing the Interventionp. 232
Intervention Methodsp. 234
Reality Orientationp. 236
Reminiscence Therapyp. 241
Validation Therapyp. 246
Remotivation Therapyp. 248
Psychotherapyp. 250
Reasons for Interventionp. 251
Dementia and the Future
Dementia in the Presentp. 255
The Status of Diagnosisp. 255
Patient Characteristicsp. 257
Caregiver Characteristicsp. 260
Interventionsp. 260
Researchp. 262
Dementia in the Twenty-First Centuryp. 262
More of the Samep. 263
Medicinep. 263
Scientific Researchp. 264
Psychological Researchp. 265
Social Researchp. 266
Cooperative Effortsp. 266
Model Buildingp. 267
The Ultimate Goal: Preventionp. 267
Notesp. 269
Referencesp. 273
Indexp. 297
Table of Contents provided by Blackwell. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780306442865
ISBN-10: 0306442868
Series: Critical Issues in Psychiatry
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 300
Published: 31st March 1993
Publisher: SPRINGER VERLAG GMBH
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 23.01 x 17.58  x 2.39
Weight (kg): 0.59