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Darwinian Dynamics : Evolutionary Transitions in Fitness and Individuality - Richard E. Michod

Darwinian Dynamics

Evolutionary Transitions in Fitness and Individuality

Paperback

Published: 1st January 2000
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The concept of fitness has long been a topic of intense debate among evolutionary biologists and their critics, with its definition and explanatory power coming under attack. In this book, Richard Michod offers a fresh, dynamical interpretation of evolution and fitness concepts. He argues that evolution has no enduring products; what matters is the process of genetic change. Whereas many biologists have focused on competition and aggression as determining factors in survival, Michod, by concentrating on the emergence of individuality at new and more complex levels, finds that cooperation plays even a greater role.

Michod first considers the principles behind the hierarchically nested levels of organization that constitute life: genes, chromosomes, genomes, cells, multicellular organisms, and societies. By examining the evolutionary transitions from the molecular level up to the whole organism, the author explains how cooperation and conflict in a multilevel setting leads to new levels of fitness. He builds a model of fitness drawing on recent developments in ecology and multilevel selection theory and on new explanations of the origin of life. Michod concludes with a discussion of the philosophical implications of his theory of fitness, a theory that addresses the most fundamental and unique concept in all of biology.

"Darwinian Dynamics is an excellent and masterful synthesis of the current understanding about how evolutionary principles work at the various levels of biological organization... Much like Einstein's theories of relativity extended classical mechanics, Michod's multi-selection theory is an extension of classical selection theory... Well produced and current... Michod has written what should be a classic for decades to come."--Norman A. Johnson, Bioscience "Individuality and fitness, two of the most fundamental concepts in evolutionary theory, are anything but simple. Theoretical biologist Richard Michod reviews and extends the state of the art for these subjects in Darwinian Dynamics... [These are] some of the most exciting advances in modern biology from one of its most able practitioners."--David Sloan Wilson, Human Biology

Prefacep. xi
Acknowledgmentsp. xv
The Language of Selectionp. 3
Plan of the Bookp. 3
Darwinian Dynamicsp. 5
Major Evolutionary Transitionsp. 7
Cooperation and Conflictp. 8
Fisherian Fitnessp. 9
Deconstructing Fitnessp. 11
Selection as Fitness Covariancep. 13
Mathematical Modelsp. 16
Adequacy Criterion for Understanding Fitnessp. 18
Definitions of Basic Conceptsp. 18
Origin of Fitnessp. 19
Complementarityp. 19
Spontaneous Creationp. 20
Self-Replication and the Origin of Fitnessp. 20
Replicator Dynamicsp. 21
Design Analysis of Molecular Replicatorp. 22
Life History Evolutionp. 24
Survival of the Fittestp. 25
Survival of Anybodyp. 26
Overview of the Origin of Fitnessp. 27
The First Individualsp. 29
Origin of Gene Networksp. 29
Cooperation and Conflictp. 32
Survival of the Firstp. 33
Evolutionary Transitions Are Inherently Nonlinearp. 35
Origin of Hypercyclesp. 35
Quasispeciesp. 37
Population Structurep. 39
Kin Selection in Evolutionary Transitionsp. 40
Conflict Mediation through Individualityp. 42
Further Evolution of the Cellp. 43
Heritable Capacities of Single Cellsp. 45
Reconsidering Adaptedness and Fitnessp. 46
Early Transitions in Evolutionp. 47
Evolution of Interactionsp. 49
Gene Frequency Changep. 49
Population Growthp. 50
Frequency-Dependent Selectionp. 51
Constant Selectionp. 51
Adaptive Topographyp. 52
Frequency Dependence Decouples Fitness in a Selection Hierarchyp. 53
Selection as Covariancep. 55
Fisher's Fundamental Theoremp. 57
Evolution in Hierarchically Structured Populationsp. 62
Evolution of Multicellular Organismsp. 64
Kin Selectionp. 66
Game Theoryp. 70
Modification of Genetic Constraintsp. 71
Population Dynamics and Natural Selectionp. 72
Fitness Minimap. 73
Prisoner's Dilemmap. 75
Spatial Structure and the Evolution of Cooperationp. 77
The Problem of Frequency Dependencep. 80
Multilevel Selection of the Organismp. 81
A Scenariop. 81
A Model for the Emergence of Organismsp. 81
Recurrence Equationsp. 84
Within-Organism Mutation Selection Modelp. 86
Mutation Ratep. 87
Covariance Methodsp. 89
The Risk of Developmentp. 90
Increase of Cooperationp. 91
Level of Cooperation among Cells within Organismsp. 93
Fitness of Organismsp. 95
Effect of Sex and Diploidy on the Emerging Organismp. 101
Strengths and Weaknesses of the Modelp. 102
Rediscovering Individualityp. 107
Evolutionary Individualsp. 107
Two-Locus Modifier Modelp. 109
Model Parametersp. 112
Equilibria of the Systemp. 112
Evolution of the Germ Linep. 113
Evolution of the Mutation Ratep. 118
Evolution of Self-Policingp. 119
Evolution of Adult Sizep. 121
Effect of Transition on the Level of Cooperationp. 122
Increase of Fitness Covariance at Organism Levelp. 122
Heritability of Fitness and the Evolution of Individualityp. 124
Sex and Individualityp. 127
Origin of Multicellular Lifep. 129
Transitions in Individualityp. 131
Fitness Explanationsp. 133
Overview of Fitness and Natural Selectionp. 133
Trading Fitness through Cooperationp. 135
Kinship and Population Structurep. 136
Conflict Mediationp. 137
Reconsidering Fitnessp. 137
The "Tautology Problem"p. 140
Surrogates for Natural Selectionp. 142
Evolution of Selfingp. 145
Cost of Sexp. 146
Immortality, Death, and the Life Cyclep. 150
Kin Selection of Altruismp. 152
Heterozygote Superiorityp. 154
Sickle Cell Anemiap. 156
Darwin's Dilemmasp. 158
A Philosophy of Fitnessp. 161
Dynamics of Designp. 161
What Makes Biology Different?p. 163
Success and Designp. 164
Long-Term versus Short-Term Measures of Fitnessp. 166
Darwinian Dynamicsp. 167
Natural Selection as a Biological Lawp. 169
Paradigms for Natural Selectionp. 173
Fitness in Darwinian Dynamicsp. 174
The Insufficiency of Individual Fitnessp. 175
Heritability and Natural Selectionp. 179
Schema for Natural Selectionp. 181
The Propensity Interpretation of Fitnessp. 183
Brandon's Approachp. 186
Heritable Capacities as Components of Designp. 189
Overall Adaptedness of Organismsp. 191
Masking of Adaptivenessp. 194
Are Adaptation Concepts Necessary?p. 196
F-Fitness and Evolutionary Explanationsp. 197
Explaining Fitnessp. 200
Supporting Analysesp. 203
Statistics of Fitness and Selectionp. 203
Equilibria for Modifier Model (G = 0)p. 217
Cost of Sex in Diploidsp. 218
Fitness Phrasesp. 222
Notationp. 226
Notesp. 233
Referencesp. 237
Indexp. 253
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780691050119
ISBN-10: 0691050112
Audience: Tertiary; University or College
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 280
Published: 1st January 2000
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 23.37 x 15.47  x 1.75
Weight (kg): 0.4