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Curricula, Examinations, and Assessment in Secondary Education in Sub-Saharan Africa : World Bank Working Papers - World Bank

Curricula, Examinations, and Assessment in Secondary Education in Sub-Saharan Africa

World Bank Working Papers

Paperback Published: 1st January 2008
ISBN: 9780821373484
Number Of Pages: 140

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Economic and social changes, fast evolution of technology, and the growing importance of internet services and international communications-all these require secondary education providers to adapt what is taught and learned in schools. However, in Africa the content of secondary curricula is in most cases ill-adapted to 21st century challenges, where young people are mobile, have access to "more and instant information," and face health threats such as HIV/AIDS. In addition, implementation problems exist, and the time for instruction is often much less then what is required by the prescribed secondary curriculum. In Africa there is a need to develop a secondary education curriculum adapted to the local economic and social environment, but with international-comparable performance indicators. This study analyzes that challenge: the quality of curricula and assessment, and their development processes in secondary education in Africa against the background of existing contexts, conditions, and ambitions on the one hand and current pedagogical thinking on the other.

Forewordp. vii
Acknowledgmentsp. ix
Executive Summaryp. xi
Resume analytiquep. xxiii
Introductionp. 1
The CASASE Studyp. 1
Methodology of the Studyp. 1
Definitionsp. 2
Advance Organizerp. 4
Context of the Sub-Saharan African Secondary Educationp. 5
Enrollment in Secondary Education in Sub-Saharan Africap. 5
Primary Completion Rates, Transfer Rates, and Gross Enrollment Ratiosp. 5
Teachers and Student Teacher Ratiosp. 7
Differences Across Sub-Saharan African Countriesp. 7
Social Perceptions of Education and Vocational Educationp. 8
Access, Equity, Quality, and Curriculump. 11
Accessp. 11
Equityp. 12
Qualityp. 12
Tensions Between Quality and Accessp. 13
Quality and Curriculum Reformp. 13
Formal Curriculum and Curriculum Structures in Sub-Saharan Africap. 15
Lengths of Educational Cycles Across Sub-Saharan Africap. 15
Curriculum Structures in the Five Countries Visitedp. 15
Position of Technical and Vocational Educationp. 16
Exit Skillsp. 17
Issues in Secondary Education Curriculump. 19
Literacy and Language of Instructionp. 20
Junior Secondary Education as Part of Basic Educationp. 22
Subjects and Learning Areas in Junior Secondary Educationp. 22
Curriculum Extensions at Both Junior and Secondary Levelp. 25
General Senior Secondary Education Curriculum Structurep. 28
Vocationalized Educationp. 29
Technical and Vocational Education and Trainingp. 33
Starting Points for TVETp. 33
Unification of TVETp. 36
Qualification Frameworks and Integrationp. 36
Implications of Frameworksp. 41
Operational Curriculum: Current Trends in Instructional Methodologyp. 43
The Need to Move Toward More Active Teaching and Learning Approachesp. 43
Active Learning and Learner-centered Educationp. 43
The Reality of Classroom Instruction and Learner-centered Educationp. 44
The Implementation of LCEp. 46
Equity and Physical Resourcesp. 47
Further Curriculum Issues Influencing Instructional Qualityp. 48
Curriculum, Teacher and Learner Support Materialsp. 51
Textbooksp. 52
Attained Curriculum: Assessment and Assessment Practices in Sub-Saharan Africap. 57
Assessment, Examination, and the Wider Picturep. 57
Examinations, Assessment, and the Curriculump. 57
Examination Results: Junior Secondary Level, and Results of the TIMSS studyp. 58
Examination Results Senior Secondary Levelp. 60
Standard Setting and Quality Assurance of Secondary Education Examinationsp. 60
Alignment Between Curriculum and Assessmentp. 62
Assessment Items and Examination Practicesp. 62
Continuous Assessment and Assessment Instrumentsp. 64
Summary and Practical Suggestions for Examination and Assessmentp. 65
Curriculum Development Processesp. 67
Policy Frameworkp. 67
Addressing the Gap Between Plan and Achievementp. 70
Considerations About Curriculum Implementationp. 72
Capacity Buildingp. 79
The Need for Capacity Building in Sub-Saharan Africap. 79
Teacher Professional Developmentp. 79
Implementing In-service Educationp. 82
Other Factors Influencing Implementation Education Reformsp. 84
Pre-service Teacher Educationp. 88
Conclusions and Recommendationsp. 91
Reform Potential and Focal Pointsp. 91
Complexity of Curriculum Reformp. 92
Curriculum Reform and Wider Educational Reformp. 93
The Importance of the Implementation Process, and the Technicalities of Curriculum Designp. 94
The Need for Capacity Development at All Levelsp. 94
Referencesp. 97
List of Tables
Enrollment in Junior Secondary Education in the Five Countries in the Studyp. 6
Enrollment in Senior Secondary Education in the Five Countries in the Studyp. 6
Enrollment in Secondary Education in the Five Countries in the Studyp. 7
Teachers and Student: Teacher Ratios in Selected Sub-Saharan African Countriesp. 8
Curriculum Structures in Five Sub-Saharan Countriesp. 16
Exit Points, Continuation, and Exit Skillsp. 18
Three Examples of Basic Education Curricula in Sub-Saharan Africap. 23
Subjects and Learning Areas, Junior Secondary in Five Sub-Saharan Countriesp. 24
Senior Secondary Curriculum Core Subjects and Options in Five Sub-Saharan Countriesp. 30
Existing Links Between Education and Vocation in Sub-Saharan Africap. 31
Levels of Physical Resourcesp. 48
Examination Results Junior Secondary Level in Four Sub-Saharan Countriesp. 58
Examination Results at the Senior Secondary Level in Five Sub-Saharan Countriesp. 61
Curriculum Development Processes and Weights of Importancep. 69
Potential Influence of Capacity Building on Individual and System Developmentp. 80
Levels of Classroom Interaction, and Assessmentp. 82
Levels of School Management and School Ecologyp. 88
List of Figures
Primary Completion and Transition Rates, GER Secondary Educationp. 7
Lengths of Educational Cyclesp. 16
Different Exit Points into the World of Workp. 18
Three Integration Models for TVETp. 38
Attempted Qualifications Framework in Ghanap. 39
The National Qualification Framework in South Africap. 40
Selected TIMSS 2003 Resultsp. 59
TIMSS 2003 international benchmarks for Math and Sciencesp. 60
FOI Interacting with Program and Context Characteristicsp. 73
Shift from Centralization and Specification To Decentralizationp. 74
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780821373484
ISBN-10: 082137348X
Series: World Bank Working Papers
Audience: Professional
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 140
Published: 1st January 2008
Publisher: World Bank Publications
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 25.4 x 17.8  x 0.7
Weight (kg): 0.26

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