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Current Sources and Voltage References : A Design Reference for Electronics Engineers - Harrison

Current Sources and Voltage References

A Design Reference for Electronics Engineers

By: Harrison

Paperback

Published: 3rd August 2005
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"Current Sources and Voltage References" provides fixed, well-regulated levels of current or voltage within a circuit. These are two of the most important "building blocks " of analog circuits, and are typically used in creating most analog IC designs.
Part 1 shows the reader how current sources are created, how they can be optimized, and how they can be utilized by the OEM circuit designer. The book serves as a "must-have" reference for the successful development of precision circuit applications. It shows practical examples using either BJTs, FETs, precision op amps, or even matched CMOS arrays being used to create highly accurate current source designs, ranging from nanoAmps to Amps. In each chapter the most important characteristics of the particular semiconductor type being studied are carefully reviewed. This not only serves as a helpful refresher for experienced engineers, but also as a good foundation for all EE student coursework, and includes device models and relevant equations.
Part 2 focuses on semiconductor voltage references, from their design to their various practical enhancements. It ranges from the simple Zener diode to today's most advanced topologies, including Analog Devices' XFET(R) and Intersil's FGA(TM) (invented while this book was being written). Over 300 applications and circuit diagrams are shown throughout this easy-to-read, practical reference book.
* Discusses how to design low-noise, precision current sources using matched transistor pairs.
* Explains the design of high power current sources with power MOSFETs
* Gives proven techniques to reduce drift and improve accuracy in voltage references.

"Even if you are more likely to buy than build your own, this book explains what you need to look for." - EDN, September 2005 "... You'll benefit from reading Linden T. Harrison's book. I've never seen a book devoted to these workhorse and often overlooked circuits. Current Sources & Voltage References teaches you how semiconductor devices work and how to use them to design stable voltage and current sources. The author also gives you some history about the people that designed the early devices and circuits." - Test & Measurement World, October 1, 2005

List of Figures and Photosp. xiii
List of Tablesp. xxv
Acknowledgementsp. xxix
A Short History of Referencesp. 1
Introductionp. 1
The first JFETs and op ampsp. 3
The first bandgapsp. 5
The buried-zener debutsp. 7
Advancements in technologyp. 8
Other topologies emergep. 9
An Introduction to Current Sourcesp. 13
An overviewp. 13
Precision resistors, networks, and trimmersp. 21
Essential development equipmentp. 29
Bench power supply unitp. 29
A thermostatically controlled ovenp. 30
A calibrated, precision ammeterp. 30
The P-N Junctionp. 31
Characteristics of the P-N junctionp. 31
Using BJTs to Create Current Sourcesp. 47
Characteristics of the BJTp. 49
Using the BJT as a current sourcep. 67
Widlar current sourcesp. 74
Wilson current mirrorsp. 81
Wyatt current sourcep. 87
Multiple current mirrorsp. 89
Cascode current mirrorsp. 91
Current scalingp. 95
Modified current sources and example applicationsp. 102
Running the current source from split power suppliesp. 102
Improving power supply rejectionp. 103
Alternative current dividerp. 104
Modified three-transisitor mirror-sourcep. 104
Current source linearly charges capacitor in VCOp. 105
Current source in a high-frequency laser transmitterp. 107
Temperature-compensated current sinkp. 108
Compound current mirrorsp. 109
Current mirrors help DACs control oscillator frequency and duty cyclep. 110
Using current sources as active loadsp. 111
Modified current source squares the reference currentp. 113
Digitally controlled variable current sourcep. 116
High-pass filter's response is set by compound current mirrorsp. 116
Simple LED current sourcesp. 118
A low-noise AC amplifier biased by an LED current sourcep. 120
A composite BJT-JFET current source with very high output impedancep. 121
A composite BJT-MOSFET high-power current sourcep. 121
A DAC-controlled current pump uses a Wilson current sourcep. 122
Using Precision Matched-Pairs, Duals, and Quadsp. 125
Precision BJT matched-pairsp. 125
Quality dual transistorsp. 129
General-purpose BJT duals and quadsp. 133
Using JFETs and CRDs to Create Current Sourcesp. 137
The JFET paved the wayp. 137
Characteristics of the JFETp. 140
Using the JFET as a current sourcep. 151
The JFET cascode current sourcep. 163
JFET current regulator diodesp. 166
Characteristics of the CRDp. 168
A design guidep. 175
An overview of various popular CRD familiesp. 175
Using JFETs to create ultra-low-leakage diodesp. 180
Creating Medium-Power Current Sources with DMOS FETsp. 185
Depletion-mode DMOS FETsp. 186
The importance of silicon-gatep. 188
Characteristics of depletion-mode DMOS FETsp. 190
Depletion-mode DMOS current sourcesp. 195
The cascode DMOS current sourcep. 197
The JFET-DMOS cascode current sourcep. 199
Lateral depletion-mode DMOS FETsp. 200
Creating Current Sources with Power MOSFETsp. 203
Characteristics of enhancement-mode MOSFETsp. 204
Using the enhancement-mode MOSFET as a current sourcep. 218
Using "smart" power MOSFETSp. 228
IXYS power MOS current sourcesp. 229
Lateral enhancement-mode MOSFETsp. 230
Using Analog CMOS Arrays to Create Current Sourcesp. 231
RCA pioneered CMOSp. 231
Characteristics of CMOS FETsp. 235
Using CMOS linear arrays to create current sourcesp. 241
CMOS cascode current sourcesp. 245
Using ALD's programmable EPADs to create precision current sourcesp. 252
ALD breaks the gate-threshold barrierp. 253
Using Monolithic IC Current Sources and Mirrorsp. 261
National's LM134-a monolithic IC current sourcep. 261
Current source applications for the LM134p. 266
Using the LM134 as a temperature sensorp. 271
TI/Burr-Brown's REF-200 monolithic current sourcep. 273
Creating Precision Current Sources with Op Amps and Voltage Referencesp. 281
How op amps evolvedp. 281
Some op amp characteristicsp. 286
Op amp supply bypassing and input protectionp. 294
Creating current sources with op ampsp. 296
Creating precision current regulators with op ampsp. 311
An Introduction to Voltage Referencesp. 319
Introduction and historyp. 319
Understanding voltage reference specificationsp. 324
Initial accuracy (initial error)p. 326
Temperature drift (tempco, TC[subscript Vo])p. 326
Long-term driftp. 332
Noisep. 333
Thermal hysteresisp. 335
Line regulationp. 336
Load regulationp. 336
Maximum output current rating (I[subscript OUT]; mA)p. 336
Supply voltage rangep. 336
Supply current (I[subscript S]) or quiescent current (I[subscript Q])p. 337
Dropout voltagep. 338
Turn-on settling time (t[subscript on]; [mu]S)p. 338
Turn-on drift (dV/T)p. 338
Transient responsep. 338
Sleep/Enablep. 338
Power dissipationp. 338
Enhancing the voltage reference designp. 339
Input and output bypassingp. 339
Noise reductionp. 341
Trimmingp. 346
Unused terminals on the packagep. 354
Package typesp. 355
PCB layoutp. 356
Why not do it yourself?p. 356
Comparing precisionp. 359
The zener Diode and the TC zener Referencep. 363
Introductionp. 363
Characteristics of the zener diodep. 365
Some simple zener applicationsp. 382
Temperature-compensated zenersp. 393
Characteristics of Monolithic Voltage Referencesp. 403
Bandgap voltage referencesp. 404
Buried-zener voltage referencesp. 415
The XFET voltage referencep. 421
The Intersil/Xicor FGA voltage referencep. 424
Low-voltage considerationsp. 426
Comparing the different topologiesp. 433
A Review of Some Outstanding Monolithic Voltage References and Their Applicationsp. 437
Introductionp. 437
Applying the bandgap shunt referencep. 438
Analog Devices ADR510p. 441
Analog Devices ADR520p. 442
National Semiconductor LM4051-ADJp. 444
Maxim MAX6138p. 446
Maxim MAX6006p. 448
Linear Technology LT1634p. 449
Linear Technology LT1389p. 449
Applying fixed-series bandgap referencesp. 451
Linear Technology LT1461p. 453
National Semiconductor LM4140p. 455
National Semiconductor LM4130p. 457
Analog Devices ADR390p. 458
Analog Devices ADR280p. 459
Analog Devices AD780p. 461
Maxim MAX6129p. 463
Maxim MAX6126p. 465
Applying adjustable-series bandgapsp. 466
Linear Technology LT6650p. 466
Maxim MAX6325p. 469
Maxim MAX6037-ADJp. 470
Intersil/Xicor x60250p. 472
Analog Devices ADR01p. 474
Digital compensationp. 476
Using the Analog Devices' XFET referencep. 478
Analog Devices ADR431Ap. 479
Applying buried-zener referencesp. 483
Analog Devices AD688p. 484
Analog Devices AD586p. 486
Texas Instruments REF102p. 488
Linear Technology LT1021p. 490
Linear Technology LTZ1000p. 491
Applying the Intersil/Xicor FGA X60008p. 494
Intersil/Xicor x60008p. 495
Creating precision current source circuitsp. 498
ISL60002p. 498
ISL60007p. 498
Multiple voltage references and multiple loadsp. 501
Digitally selectable 5-reference calibratorp. 502
Same voltage to multiple loadsp. 503
Monolithic voltage references-a look to the futurep. 506
References and Tablesp. 513
Power of 10 and Equivalentsp. 513
Temperature scale conversionp. 515
Precision resistor comparisonsp. 515
Gain vs. dB conversion Tablep. 516
Reactance chart for filter designp. 517
Small signal model for the BJTp. 518
Simplified BJT modelsp. 518
BJT operating modes Tablep. 519
JFET modelsp. 519
MOS transistor modelsp. 520
PPM to % converterp. 521
Allowable noise levels for n-bit systemsp. 521
Different voltage reference configurationsp. 522
Allowable tempco requirementsp. 523
Glossaryp. 525
Bibliographyp. 535
Part I-Current Sourcesp. 535
Part II-Voltage Referencesp. 540
Contact Informationp. 543
Semiconductor Manufacturersp. 543
Electronics Distributorsp. 549
Precision Passives Manufacturersp. 550
Instrumentation Manufacturersp. 555
Magazines & Periodicalsp. 557
Indexp. 559
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780750677523
ISBN-10: 075067752X
Audience: Professional
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 608
Published: 3rd August 2005
Publisher: Elsevier Science & Technology
Country of Publication: GB
Dimensions (cm): 23.5 x 19.1  x 3.76
Weight (kg): 1.24