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Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind : Software for the Mind - Geert H. Hofstede

Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind

Software for the Mind

Paperback Published: 3rd May 2010
ISBN: 9780071664189
Number Of Pages: 576

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The revolutionary study of how the place where we grew up shapes the way we think, feel, and act-- with new dimensions and perspectives

Based on research conducted in more than seventy countries over a forty-year span, Cultures and Organizations examines what drives people apart—when cooperation is so clearly in everyone’s interest. With major new contributions from Michael Minkov’s analysis of data from the World Values Survey, as well as an account of the evolution of cultures by Gert Jan Hofstede, this revised and expanded edition:

  • Reveals the “moral circles” from which national societies are built and the unexamined rules by which people think, feel, and act
  • Explores how national cultures differ in the areas of inequality, assertiveness versus modesty, and tolerance for ambiguity
  • Explains how organizational cultures differ from national cultures—and how they can be managed
  • Analyzes stereotyping, differences in language, cultural roots of the 2008 economic crisis, and other intercultural dynamics
About the Author

Geert Hofstede, Ph.D., is professor emeritus of Organizational Anthropology and International Management at the University of Maastricht, the Netherlands.

Gert Van Hofstede, Ph.D., is a biologist and professor of Information Systems at Wageningen University, the Netherlands, and the son of Geert Hofstede.

Michael Minkov, Ph.D., is a lecturer at the International University College and at the University of Sofia “St. Kliment Ohridski,” Sofia, Bulgaria.

Prefacep. xi
The Concept of Culture
The Rules of the Social Gamep. 3
Different Minds but Common Problemsp. 4
Culture as Mental Programmingp. 4
Symbols, Heroes, Rituals, and Valuesp. 7
Culture Reproduces Itselfp. 10
No Group Can Escape Culturep. 11
Values and the Moral Circlep. 12
Boundaries of the Moral Circle: Religion and Philosophyp. 13
Beyond Race and Familyp. 14
We and Theyp. 16
Ideologies as Group Markersp. 17
Layers of Culturep. 17
Culture Change: Changing Practices, Stable Valuesp. 18
National Culture Differencesp. 20
National Identities, Values, and Institutionsp. 22
What About National Management Cultures?p. 24
Cultural Relativismp. 25
Culture as a Phoenixp. 26
Studying Cultural Differencesp. 27
Measuring Valuesp. 28
Dimensions of National Culturesp. 29
Using Correlationsp. 32
Replications of the IBM Researchp. 34
Extending the IBM Model: The Chinese Value Surveyp. 37
Validation of the Country Culture Scores against Other Measuresp. 38
Culture Scores and Personality Scores: No Reason for Stereotypingp. 39
Other Classifications of National Culturesp. 40
A Second Expansion of the Hofstede Dimensional Model: Minkov's Exploration of the World Values Surveyp. 44
Cultural Differences According to Region, Ethnicity, Religion, Gender, Generation, and Classp. 45
Organizational Culturesp. 47
Reading Mental Programs: Suggestions for Researchersp. 47
Dimensions of National Cultures
More Equal than Othersp. 53
Inequality in Societyp. 54
Measuring the Degree of Inequality in Society: The Power Distance Indexp. 55
Power Distance Definedp. 60
Power Distance in Replication Studiesp. 62
Power Distance Differences within Countries: Social Class, Education Level, and Occupationp. 64
Measures Associated with Power Distance: The Structure in This and Following Chaptersp. 66
Power Distance Difference among Countries: Roots in the Familyp. 67
Power Distance at Schoolp. 69
Power Distance and Health Carep. 71
Power Distance in the Workplacep. 73
Power Distance and the Statep. 75
Power Distance and Ideasp. 79
Origins of Power Distance Differencesp. 82
The Future of Power Distance Differencesp. 86
I, We, and Theyp. 89
The Individual and the Collective in Societyp. 90
Measuring the Degree of Individualism in Societyp. 92
Individualism and Collectivism in the World Values Survey: Universalism Versus Exclusionismp. 94
Individualism and Collectivism in Other Cross-National Studiesp. 99
Are Individualism and Collectivism One or Two Dimensions?p. 102
Collectivism Versus Power Distancep. 102
Individualism and Collectivism According to Occupationp. 105
Individualism and Collectivism in the Familyp. 106
Language, Personality, and Behavior in Individualist and Collectivist Culturesp. 112
Individualism and Collectivism at Schoolp. 117
Individualism and Collectivism in the Workplacep. 119
Individualism, Collectivism, and the Internetp. 123
Individualism, Collectivism, and the Statep. 125
Individualism, Collectivism, and Ideasp. 127
Origins of Individualism-Collectivism Differencesp. 131
The Future of Individualism and Collectivismp. 133
He, She, and(S)hep. 135
Assertiveness Versus Modestyp. 136
Genders and Gender Rolesp. 137
Masculinity-Femininity as a Dimension of Societal Culturep. 138
Masculinity and Femininity in Other Cross-National Studiesp. 144
Masculinity Versus Individualismp. 146
Are Masculinity and Femininity One or Two Dimensions?p. 146
Country Masculinity Scores by Gender and Gender Scores by Agep. 148
Masculinity and Femininity According to Occupationp. 150
Masculinity and Femininity in the Familyp. 151
Masculinity and Femininity in Gender Roles and Sexp. 154
Masculinity and Femininity in Educationp. 158
Masculinity and Femininity in Shoppingp. 163
Masculinity and Femininity in the Workplacep. 164
Masculinity, Femininity, and the Statep. 170
Masculinity, Femininity, and Religionp. 175
Origins of Masculinity-Femininity Differencesp. 180
The Future of Differences in Masculinity and Femininityp. 184
What Is Different Is Dangerousp. 187
The Avoidance of Uncertaintyp. 188
Measuring the (In)tolerance of Ambiguity in Society: The Uncertainty-Avoidance Indexp. 190
Uncertainty Avoidance and Anxietyp. 195
Uncertainty Avoidance Is Not the Same as Risk Avoidancep. 197
Uncertainty Avoidance in Replication Studies: Project GLOBEp. 198
Uncertainty Avoidance According to Occupation, Gender, and Agep. 199
Uncertainty Avoidance in the Familyp. 200
Uncertainty Avoidance, Health, and (Un)happinessp. 202
Uncertainty Avoidance at Schoolp. 205
Uncertainty Avoidance in Shoppingp. 206
Uncertainty Avoidance in the Workplacep. 208
Uncertainty Avoidance, Masculinity, and Motivationp. 213
Uncertainty Avoidance, the Citizen, and the Statep. 216
Uncertainty Avoidance and Corruptionp. 221
Uncertainty Avoidance, Xenophobia, and Nationalismp. 224
Uncertainty Avoidance, Religion, and Ideasp. 226
Origins of Uncertainty-Avoidance Differencesp. 232
The Future of Uncertainty-Avoidance Differencesp. 233
Yesterday, Now, or Later?p. 235
National Values and the Teachings of Confuciusp. 236
Implications of LTO-CVS Differences for Family Lifep. 240
Implications of LTO-CVS Differences for Businessp. 242
Implications of LTO-CVS Differences for Ways of Thinkingp. 246
Long-Term Orientation Scores Based on World Values Survey Datap. 252
Long-Term Orientation and the GLOBE Dimensionsp. 259
Long- and Short-Term Orientation, Family Relations, and School Resultsp. 260
Long- and Short-Term Orientation and Economic Growthp. 262
Economic Growth and Politicsp. 267
Fundamentalisms as Short-Term Orientationp. 269
Short-Term Orientation in Africap. 271
The Future of Long- and Short-Term Orientationp. 274
Light or Dark?p. 277
The Nature of Subjective Well-Beingp. 278
Subjective Well-Being and the World Values Surveyp. 279
Indulgence Versus Restraint as a Societal Dimensionp. 280
Indulgence Versus Restraint and Subjective Well-Being in Other Cross-National Studiesp. 288
Indulgence Versus Restraint, Subjective Health, Optimism, and Birthratesp. 289
Indulgence Versus Restraint, Importance of Friends, and Consumer Attitudesp. 290
Indulgence Versus Restraint and Sexual Relationshipsp. 293
Indulgence Versus Restraint in the Workplacep. 294
Indulgence Versus Restraint and the Statep. 295
Origins of Societal Differences in Indulgence Versus Restraintp. 296
Cultures in Organizations
Pyramids, Machines, Markets, and Families: Organizing Across Nationsp. 301
Implicit Models of Organizationsp. 302
Management Professors Are Humanp. 307
Culture and Organizational Structure: Elaborating on Mintzbergp. 312
Planning, Control, and Accountingp. 315
Corporate Governance and Business Goalsp. 320
Motivation Theories and Practicesp. 327
Leadership, Decision Making, and Empowermentp. 331
Performance Appraisal and Management by Objectivesp. 334
Management Training and Organization Developmentp. 336
Conclusion: Nationality Defines Organizational Rationalityp. 337
The Elephant and the Stork: Organizational Culturesp. 341
The Organizational Culture Crazep. 343
Differences between Organizational and National Cultures: The IRIC Projectp. 346
Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches in the IRIC Projectp. 349
Results of the In-Depth Interviews: The SAS Casep. 351
Results of the Survey: Six Dimensions of Organizational Culturesp. 353
The Scope for Competitive Advantages in Cultural Mattersp. 358
Organizational Culture and Other Organizational Characteristicsp. 360
Organizational Subculturesp. 364
Individual Perceptions of Organizational Culturesp. 366
Gardens, Bouquets, and Flowers of Social Sciencep. 368
Occupational Culturesp. 368
Conclusions from the IRIC Research Project: Dimensions Versus Gestaltsp. 370
Managing (with) Organizational Culturep. 371
Intercultural Encountersp. 381
Intended Versus Unintended Intercultural Conflictp. 382
Culture Shock and Acculturationp. 384
Ethnocentrism and Xenophiliap. 387
Group Encounters: Auto- and Heterostereotypesp. 387
Language and Humorp. 388
The Influence of Communication Technologiesp. 391
Intercultural Encounters in Tourismp. 392
Intercultural Encounters in Schoolsp. 393
Minorities, Migrants, and Refugeesp. 395
Intercultural Negotiationsp. 399
Multinational Business Organizationsp. 402
Coordinating Multinationals: Structure Should Follow Culturep. 406
Expanding Multinationals: International Mergers and Other Venturesp. 407
International Marketing, Advertising, and Consumer Behaviorp. 409
International Politics and International Organizationsp. 412
Economic Development, Nondevelopment, and Development Cooperationp. 416
Learning Intercultural Communicationp. 419
Educating for Intercultural Understanding: Suggestions for Parentsp. 423
Spreading Multicultural Understanding: The Role of the Mediap. 425
Global Challenges Call for Intercultural Cooperationp. 426
The Evolution of Culturesp. 431
A Time-Machine Journey Through Historyp. 433
Five Million to One Million Years Ago: Lonely Planetp. 434
One Million to Forty Thousand Years Ago: Ice and Firep. 436
Forty Thousand to Ten Thousand Years Ago: Creative Spark, Exterminationp. 438
Twelve Thousand to Seven Thousand Five Hundred Years Ago: Villages and Agriculturep. 442
Seven Thousand Five Hundred Years Ago Until Now: Large-Scale Civilizationsp. 447
Sources of Cultural Diversity and Changep. 453
The End of History? No!p. 455
The Essence of Evolutionp. 456
Evolution: More than Genesp. 459
Evolution Beyond Selfishness: Groups over Individualsp. 464
Individuals and Institutions in the Stream of Lifep. 466
Evolution at Work Todayp. 468
The Future of Culturep. 473
Notesp. 479
Glossaryp. 515
Bibliographyp. 525
Name Indexp. 547
Subject Indexp. 549
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780071664189
ISBN-10: 0071664181
Series: Business Skills and Development
Audience: General
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 576
Published: 3rd May 2010
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 23.0 x 15.5  x 3.3
Weight (kg): 0.71
Edition Number: 3
Edition Type: Revised

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