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Cultural Models in Language and Thought - Dorothy Holland

Cultural Models in Language and Thought

By: Dorothy Holland (Editor), Naomi Quinn (Editor)

Paperback

Published: 8th June 1987
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The papers in this volume, a multidisciplinary collaboration of anthropologists, linguists, and psychologists, explore the ways in which cultural knowledge is organized and used in everyday language and understanding. Employing a variety of methods, which rely heavily on linguistic data, the authors offer analyses of domains of knowledge ranging across the physical, social, and psychological worlds, and reveal the importance of tacit, presupposed knowledge in the conduct of everyday life. The authors argue that cultural knowledge is organized in 'cultural models' - storylike chains of prototypical events that unfold in simplified worlds - and explore the nature and role of these models. They demonstrate that cultural knowledge may take either proposition-schematic or image-schematic form, each enabling the performance of different kinds of cognitive tasks. Metaphor and metonymy are shown to have special roles in the construction of cultural models. The authors also demonstrates that some widely applicable cultural models recur nested within other, more special-purpose models. Finally, it is shown that shared models play a critical role in thinking, allowing humans to master, remember, and use the vast amount of knowledge required in everyday life. This innovative collection will appeal to anthropologists, linguists, psychologists, philosophers, students of artificial intelligence, and other readers interested in the processes of everyday human understanding.

"This book, emphasizing as it does the role of the cultural component in human knowledge, should be of interest to students of anthropology, linguistics, and psychology, as well as to specialists in the fields of artificial intelligence and cognitive science." Studies in Second Language Learning

Prefacep. vii
List of Contributorsp. xi
Introduction
Culture and cognitionp. 3
Presupposed worlds, language, and discourse
The definition of lie: an examination of the folk models underlying a semantic prototypep. 43
Linguistic competence and folk theories of language: two English hedgesp. 67
Prestige and intimacy: the cultural models behind Americans' talk about gender typesp. 78
A folk model of the mindp. 112
Reasoning and problem solving from presupposed worlds
Proverbs and cultural models: an American psychology of problem solvingp. 151
Convergent evidence for a cultural model of American marriagep. 173
The role of metaphor and analogy in representing knowledge of presupposed worlds
The cognitive model of anger inherent in American Englishp. 195
Two theories of home heat controlp. 222
How people construct mental modelsp. 243
Negotiating social and psychological realities
Myth and experience in the Trobriand Islandsp. 269
Goals, events, and understanding in Ifaluk emotion theoryp. 290
Ecuadorian illness stories: cultural knowledge in natural discoursep. 313
Explanatory systems in oral life storiesp. 343
An appraisal
Models, "folk" and "cultural": paradigms regained?p. 369
Indexp. 395
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780521311687
ISBN-10: 0521311683
Audience: Professional
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 416
Published: 8th June 1987
Publisher: CAMBRIDGE UNIV PR
Country of Publication: GB
Dimensions (cm): 23.34 x 15.16  x 2.52
Weight (kg): 0.6