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Cromwellian Foreign Policy - Timothy Venning

Cromwellian Foreign Policy

Hardcover Published: 27th March 1995
ISBN: 9780333633885
Number Of Pages: 324

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The Protectorate's foreign relations are among the most misunderstood aspects of a little-known period of British history, usually seen as an interlude between regicide and Restoration. Yet Cromwell's unique political and military position and current European conflicts enabled him to play a crucial role in international affairs, playing off France against Spain and arousing Catholic fears. Financial and security problems determined the nature of Cromwell's policies, but he achieved great influence among his neighbours in five turbulent years Until recent studies the Protectorate has been regarded as a political cul-de-sac lying uncomfortably between regicide and Restoration. Its foreign relations presented outdated 'Elizabethan' hatred of declining Spain, neglect of rising French and Dutch power, and excessive admiration of Protestant Sweden. A close study of Cromwell's domestic and international position in 1653 casts new light on his problems and successes, restoring pragmatism above religious idealism as the determining factor despite Cromwell's undoubted miscalculations. It is to his credit that England's international prestige stood at its highest during the century in 1658, helped by his unprecedently powerful (though expensive) armed forces. Despite unpopularity and subversion at home, and a narrow base of support, Cromwell utilised the Franco-Spanish war to auction his services between them, obtained England's only Continental foothold after 1558, and pressed his claim as leader of European Protestantism at a time of renewed religious tension.

List of Abbreviations
Cromwell's Foreign Policy: The Historical Assessmentp. 1
The Decision-making Process: Council, Secretary and Ambassadorsp. 13
Cromwell's Approach to the 'Two Crowns', 1651-4p. 38
The Verge of a Breach with France: July 1654-March 1655p. 55
The Western Designp. 71
Leda's Mission and the Vaudois Massacrep. 91
Spain's Breach of Relations with Englandp. 102
1656 - England Delays an Offensive Alliance with Francep. 113
The French Alliance of March 1657p. 125
England, France and Dunkirk, 1657-8p. 137
Cromwell and the Dutch, 1653-4p. 153
The Uneasy Peace: England and the Dutch, 1654-8p. 172
Cromwell and the Baltic, 1654-6p. 190
Cromwell and the Baltic, 1656-8p. 202
Cromwell and Russia, 1653-8p. 218
Cromwell, the City and Trade: Venice and the Turksp. 230
The Financial Aspects of Foreign Policyp. 238
Conclusionp. 251
Notesp. 254
Bibliographyp. 295
Indexp. 301
Table of Contents provided by Blackwell. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780333633885
ISBN-10: 0333633881
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 324
Published: 27th March 1995
Country of Publication: GB
Dimensions (cm): 21.59 x 13.97  x 2.24
Weight (kg): 0.58
Edition Number: 1