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Critical Thinking Skills : Developing Effective Analysis and Argument : 2nd Edition - Stella Cottrell

Critical Thinking Skills : Developing Effective Analysis and Argument

2nd Edition


Published: 11th May 2011
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More analysis needed' is a comment lecturers repeatedly have to write on their students' work. Proceeding beyond this level of feedback is difficult when many students don't understand what analysis is or how to integrate criticism into their work. With this in mind, Critical Thinking Skills has taken the seemingly baffling art of analysis and broken it down into easy to understand blocks, with clear explanations, good examples, and plenty of activities to develop understanding at each stage. It even applies the techniques to reading, note making and writing. Recommending Critical Thinking Skills will help your students develop this important set of skills and improve their grades. Request your inspection copy today!

About the Authors

Stella Cottrell is Director for Lifelong Learning at the University of Leeds, UK. She is author of the best-selling The Study Skills Handbook, as well as The Exam Skills Handbook, Critical Thinking Skills and Skills for Success, a key text on personal development planning.

'I think this book is strong: clear, concise and relevant' - Liesl Schwabe, Yeshiva College, New York 'I liked this book - it is fun and new!' - Julie Engstrom, Brigham Young University-Idaho 'I found this text very useful not only for students but also for newly appointed staff teaching Academic Skills. The activities are most useful for the novice lecturer in particular to developing their own style while using this text as a guide' - Ann Anka, Havering College of Further and Higher Education 'I really endorse this book both for its clear and structural approach and its use of humour to more fully engage its audience' - Deidre Kelleher, University College Dublin 'One of the best texts for general critical thinking around at the moment... very good value for money' - Victor Glynn, Oxford University

Introductionp. viii
Glossaryp. xii
Acknowledgementsp. xiv
What is critical thinking?p. 1
Introductionp. 1
What is critical thinking?p. 2
Reasoningp. 3
Why develop critical thinking skills?p. 4
Underlying skills and attitudesp. 5
Self-awareness for accurate judgementp. 6
Personal strategies for critical thinkingp. 7
Critical thinking in academic contextsp. 8
Barriers to critical thinkingp. 10
Critical thinking: Knowledge, skills and attitudesp. 13
Priorities: Developing critical thinking abilitiesp. 14
Summaryp. 16
How well do you think? Develop your thinking skillsp. 17
Introductionp. 17
Assess your thinking skillsp. 18
Scoring sheetp. 22
Focusing attentionp. 23
Focusing attention: Identifying differencep. 24
Focusing attention: Recognising sequencep. 25
Categorisingp. 27
Activity: Categorising textp. 28
Close readingp. 29
Information about the sourcesp. 31
Answers to activities in Chapter 2p. 32
What's their point? Identifying argumentsp. 37
Introductionp. 37
The author's positionp. 38
Activity: Capturing the author's positionp. 39
Argument: Persuasion through reasonsp. 40
Identifying the argumentp. 41
Activity: Identifying simple argumentsp. 44
Activity: Reasons and conclusionsp. 45
Hunting out the conclusionp. 46
Summary of featuresp. 47
Summaryp. 48
Information about the sourcesp. 48
Answers to activities in Chapter 3p. 49
Is it an argument? Argument and non-argumentp. 51
Introductionp. 51
Argument and disagreementp. 52
Activity: Argument and disagreementp. 53
Non-arguments: Descriptionp. 54
Non-arguments: Explanations and summariesp. 55
Activity: What type of message?p. 56
Distinguishing argument from other materialp. 58
Activity: Selecting out the argumentp. 59
Summaryp. 61
Information about the sourcesp. 61
Answers to activities in Chapter 4p. 62
How well do they say it? Clarity, consistency and structurep. 63
Introductionp. 63
How clear is the author's position?p. 64
Internal consistencyp. 65
Activity: Internal consistencyp. 66
Logical consistencyp. 67
Activity: Logical consistencyp. 68
Independent reasons and joint reasonsp. 69
Activity: Independent reasons and joint reasonsp. 70
Intermediate conclusionsp. 71
Intermediate conclusions used as reasonsp. 72
Activity: Intermediate conclusionsp. 73
Summative and logical conclusionsp. 74
Activity: Summative and logical conclusionsp. 75
Logical orderp. 76
Activity: Logical orderp. 77
Summaryp. 78
Information about the sourcesp. 78
Answers to activities in Chapter 5p. 79
Reading between the lines: Recognising underlying assumptions and implicit argumentsp. 85
Introductionp. 85
Assumptionsp. 86
Activity: Identify the underlying assumptionsp. 87
Identifying hidden assumptionsp. 88
Implicit assumptions used as reasonsp. 89
Activity: Implicit assumptions used as reasonsp. 90
False premisesp. 91
Activity: False premisesp. 92
Implicit argumentsp. 93
Activities: Implicit argumentsp. 94
Denoted and connoted meaningsp. 95
Activities: Associations and stereotypesp. 97
Activity: Denoted and connoted meaningsp. 98
Summaryp. 99
Information about the sourcesp. 99
Answers to activities in Chapter 6p. 100
Does it add up? Identifying flaws in the argumentp. 105
Introductionp. 105
Assuming a causal linkp. 106
Correlations and false correlationsp. 107
Activity: Identify the nature of the linkp. 108
Not meeting the necessary conditionsp. 109
Not meeting sufficient conditionsp. 110
Activity: Necessary and sufficient conditionsp. 111
False analogiesp. 112
Activity: False analogiesp. 113
Deflection, complicity and exclusionp. 114
Other types of flawed argumentp. 115
Unwarranted leaps and castle of cardsp. 116
Emotive language; Attacking the personp. 117
More flawsp. 118
Misrepresentation and trivialisationp. 119
Tautology; Two wrongs don't make a rightp. 120
Summaryp. 121
Information on the sourcesp. 121
Answers to activities in Chapter 7p. 122
Where's the proof? Finding and evaluating sources of evidencep. 125
Introductionp. 125
Primary and secondary source materialsp. 126
Searching for evidencep. 127
Literature searchesp. 128
Reputable sourcesp. 129
Authenticity and validityp. 130
Currency and reliabilityp. 131
Selecting the best evidencep. 132
Relevant and irrelevant evidencep. 133
Activity: Relevant and irrelevant evidencep. 134
Representative samplesp. 135
Activity: Representative samplesp. 136
Certainty and probabilityp. 137
Sample sizes and statistical significancep. 138
Over-generalisationp. 139
Controlling for variablesp. 140
Facts and opinionsp. 141
Eye-witness testimonyp. 142
Triangulationp. 143
Evaluating a body of evidencep. 144
Summaryp. 145
Information on the sourcesp. 145
Answers to activities in Chapter 8p. 146
Critical reading and note-making: Critical selection, interpretation and noting of source materialp. 147
Introductionp. 147
Preparing for critical readingp. 148
Identifying the theoretical perspectivep. 149
The relation of theory to argumentp. 150
Categorising and selectingp. 151
Accurate interpretation when readingp. 152
Making notes to support critical readingp. 153
Reading and noting for a purposep. 154
Concise critical notes: Analysing argumentp. 155
Concise critical notes: Booksp. 156
Concise critical notes: Articles and papersp. 157
Critical selection when note-makingp. 158
Activity: Critical selectionp. 159
Commentary on critical selection activityp. 161
Note your source of informationp. 162
Summaryp. 164
Information on the sourcesp. 164
Answers to activities in Chapter 9p. 165
Critical, analytical writing: Critical thinking when writingp. 167
Introductionp. 167
Characteristics of critical, analytical writingp. 168
Setting the scene for the readerp. 170
Activity: Setting the scene for the readerp. 171
Writing up the literature searchp. 172
Words used to introduce the line of reasoningp. 173
Signposting alternative points of viewp. 175
Words used to signpost conclusionsp. 177
Words and phrases used to structure the line of reasoningp. 178
Drawing tentative conclusionsp. 179
Activity: Writing conclusionsp. 180
Critical analysis for essays: essay titlesp. 181
Academic keywords used in titlesp. 182
Critical analysis for essays: readingp. 183
Critical analytical essays: introductionsp. 184
Structured argument: the body of the essayp. 185
Essays: Bringing the argument togetherp. 186
Citing and referencing your sourcesp. 187
What do I include in a reference?p. 188
Summaryp. 189
Information on the sourcesp. 189
Answers to activities in Chapter 10p. 190
Where's the analysis? Evaluating critical writingp. 191
Introductionp. 191
Checklist for evaluating Essay 1p. 192
Evaluate Essay 1p. 193
Evaluation of Essay 1p. 195
Commentary for Essay 1p. 196
Checklist for evaluating Essay 2p. 198
Evaluate Essay 2p. 199
Evaluation of Essay 2p. 201
Commentary on Essay 2p. 202
Evaluating your writing for critical thinkingp. 204
Summaryp. 206
Critical reflectionp. 207
Introductionp. 207
What is critical reflection?p. 208
Why engage in critical reflection?p. 210
Decide your approach and purposep. 211
Approach: outcome, focus, model, methodp. 212
Approach: method and audiencep. 213
Approach: relating experience and theoryp. 214
Decide your approach: summaryp. 215
Resource: Outline approach to reflectionp. 216
Reflection phases 1 and 2p. 218
Examples of phase 1 reflectionp. 219
Examples of phase 2 reflectionp. 220
Models of reflectionp. 221
Deciding on your model for reflectionp. 222
The Core Model for critical reflectionp. 223
Applying reflection to professional practicep. 225
Reflection and professional judgementp. 226
Good and bad critical reflectionp. 227
Presenting your reflection to othersp. 229
Summaryp. 230
Information about the sourcesp. 230
Texts for Activities in Chapters 8, 9 and 11p. 231
Texts for activities in Chapters 8, 9 and 11p. 233
Practice activities on longer textsp. 239
Features of an argumentp. 240
Features of an argumentp. 244
Finding flaws in the argumentp. 247
Finding flaws in the argumentp. 251
Features of an argumentp. 255
Features of an argumentp. 261
Finding flaws in the argumentp. 266
Finding flaws in the argumentp. 271
Appendix: Selected search engines and databases for on-line literature searchesp. 277
Bibliographyp. 278
Indexp. 280
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780230285293
ISBN-10: 0230285295
Series: Palgrave Study Guides
Audience: Tertiary; University or College
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 296
Published: 11th May 2011
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
Country of Publication: GB
Dimensions (cm): 19.0 x 24.6  x 1.3
Weight (kg): 0.65
Edition Number: 2
Edition Type: Revised