This book aims to investigate criminal recidivism, the process involved in continuing offending and in delaying desistance from a criminal career. It focuses on why, how and for how long an individual continues committing crimes. It aims to explain both the development of a persistent criminal career and the commission of offences. The challenge is to address persistent criminal behaviour within the paradigm of criminal careers, and to extend this analysis in the realm of criminological psychology and developmental and life-course theories of offending. We suggest that the commission of crimes depends partly on the individual, partly on the situation, and especially on the interaction between the individual and the situation, although little is known about this. This book intends to fill a gap in the criminological psychology literature by examining the processes underlying persistent criminal careers. At an empirical level it attempts to explain criminal persistence and recidivism issues using longitudinal data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development (CSDD).
At a psycho-criminological level it joins together quantitative and qualitative analyses, making its content a practical guide to explain, predict, and intervene to reduce the risk of criminal recidivism. The book is aimed not only at advanced students and academics in psychology, criminology, probation studies, social sciences, psychiatry, sociology, political science, and penology, but also at decision makers, policy officials, and practitioners, within the realm of crime intervention and prevention, and also forensic experts, judges and lawyers. It provides essential, systematically summarised, and evidence-based information on understanding, explaining, predicting and reducing criminal persistence and recidivism. The authors compare official and self-reported delinquency data, analyse the intergenerational continuity of antisocial behaviour, and include case material, so as to make its content closer to the reality of crime experienced by those people who see crime as a way of life.
`Five percent of offenders commit fifty percent of crimes. Beyond that, what else do we know? This book is the authoritative source for the newest information on reoffending, rearrest, reconviction, reincarceration, specialisation, versatility, life-course-persistent offending, escalation or de-escalation, risk assessment, psychopathic personality, desistence, and most important of all, what works to reduce recidivism.' - Terrie E Moffitt, Nannerl O. Keohane University Professor, Duke University, USA
`A small group of offenders are accountable for the majority of crime, and our capacity to explain, predict, and prevent recidivism is of the utmost importance for society. David Farrington and Georgia Zara, leading scholars in the field, provide a penetrating analysis of the most important issues in recidivism research. Deeply informative and clearly written, this groundbreaking book provides a fresh and invigorating perspective on criminal recidivism. Engaging and level-headed, this absorbing and very accessible account of recidivism covers all key knowledge bases on criminal reoffending, including prediction, risk assessment instruments, psychopaths, sex offenders, treatment, and much more. It's an outstanding and invaluable resource for all those who deal with offenders, both in research and practice.' - Adrian Raine, Richard Perry University Professor, Departments of Criminology, Psychiatry, and Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, USA
`This book is an impressive overview of scientific knowledge on criminal recidivism and its correlates, including relevant European data on this topic. I particularly like Zara and Farrington's integration of general quantitative results and their qualitative description of persistent offender's life stories. Crime researchers and Criminal Justice practitioners will find in this book the most solid scientific basis for their analyses and practical interventions.' - Santiago Redondo, Professor of Criminology, Faculty of Psychology, University of Barcelona, Spain
`This volume addresses critical questions for criminal justice policymakers, academics and students of criminology: Why do people continue to commit crime and what can be done to stop them? The depth and range provided by the authors in answering these critical questions make this book a truly impressive contribution.' - Darrick Jolliffe, Professor of Criminology, University of Greenwich, UK
Introduction Section 1: Explanation of Recidivism 1. Types of Official Contacts 2. Measures of Recidiv 3. Criminal Career Features: Duration, Persistence, Intergenerational Transmission of Antisociality and Violence, Residual Career Length, Desistance 4. Case Studies Section 2: Prediction of Recidivism 5. Risk Assessment 6. Recidivism of Violent Offending 7. Recidivism of Sexual Offending 8. Psychopathy and Criminal Recidivism Section 3: Prevention of Recidivism 9. Evaluating Effectiveness of Programmes 10. Rehabilitation and Treatment of Offenders 11. Applying Research to Policy. Conclusion