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Cost-Justifying Usability : An Update for the Internet Age - Deborah J Mayhew

Cost-Justifying Usability

An Update for the Internet Age

Paperback

Published: 4th April 2005
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You just know that an improvement of the user interface will reap rewards, but how do you justify the expense and the labor and the time-guarantee a robust ROI -ahead of time? How do you decide how much of an investment should be funded? And what is the best way to sell usability to others?
In this completely revised and new edition, Randolph G. Bias (University of Texas at Austin, with 25 years' experience as a usability practitioner and manager) and Deborah J. Mayhew (internationally recognized usability consultant and author of two other seminal books including The Usability Engineering Lifecycle) tackle these and many other problems. It has been updated to cover cost-justifying usability for Web sites and intranets, for the complex applications we have today, and for a host of products-offering techniques, examples, and cases that are unavailable elsewhere. No matter what type of product you build, whether or not you are a cost-benefit expert or a born salesperson, this book has the tools that will enable you to cost-justify the appropriate usability investment.
-Includes contributions by a host of experts involved in this work, including Aaron Marcus, Janice Rohn, Chauncey Wilson, Nigel Bevan, Dennis Wixon, Clare-Marie Karat, Susan Dray, Charles Mauro, and many others;
-Includes actionable ideas for every phase of the software development process;
-Includes case studies from inside a variety of companies;
-Includes ideas from "the other side of the table," software executives who hold the purse strings, who offer thoughts on which proposals for usability support they've funded, and which ones they've declined.

"HCI professionals will repeat quotes with statistics, learn from case studies, and copy chapters for their managers. Thorough & thoughtful, practical & actionable-- readers will be able to put the ideas to work immediately!" -Ben Shneiderman, University of Maryland "Cost-Justifying Usability" delivers much more than the promise of its title. Each chapter is worth the price of admission! I found more useful ideas and creative thinking in this book than I've come across in one place in years. Moreover, the collection of articles goes far beyond what the book title might suggest: it not only offers the definitive treatment of determining ROI for usability, but also provides a complete overview of usability considerations for getting you there. From specific calculations to help you with extending the business case, to introducing ethnography into the product development process, Cost Justifying Usability offers a treasure of gems for every user-centered design professional." -Dominick J. Dellino, Director of User Research and Testing, Washington Mutual

Prefacep. xxiii
Greetings, and Best Wishesp. xxiii
The Bookp. xxiii
The Audiencep. xxvi
Acknowledgementsp. xxvi
Justifying Cost-Justifying Usabilityp. 1
Introductionp. 1
Lessons from the Past: Seminal Research on Return on Investment in Human Factors in the 1980s and 1990sp. 3
www.SoWhatp. 5
Who Are All Those People?p. 6
If I Had a Hammer, I Wouldn't Necessarily Be a Carpenterp. 6
The Tug of "Internet Time"p. 7
The Old "Get Something Out There" Approach Doesn't Work Anymorep. 8
The Dangers of Amateur Usability Engineeringp. 9
More Capabilities Means More Novice Usersp. 12
The World Is More Complex, so It Is Harder to Know What All the Possibilities Arep. 12
Isn't It Obvious?p. 13
Not "If" but "Which"p. 14
The Solution: Approach, Tools, and Communicationp. 14
Referencesp. 15
User Interface Design's Return on Investment: Examples and Statisticsp. 17
Introduction: What Do We Mean by the Return on Investment of Usability?p. 17
How can we "Prove" the Return on Investment? Some Examples and Statisticsp. 18
Overall Value of Implementing User Interface Practicesp. 19
Development: Reduce Costsp. 19
Sales: Increase Revenuep. 26
Use: Improve Effectivenessp. 29
Other Return on Investment Factorsp. 33
Conclusionp. 34
Acknowledgmentsp. 36
Referencesp. 36
A Basic Frameworkp. 41
Introductionp. 41
The Usability Engineering Lifecyclep. 42
Phase One: Requirements Analysisp. 45
Phase Two: Design/Testing/Developmentp. 48
Phase Three: Installationp. 53
General Approachp. 55
Sample Cost-Benefit Analysesp. 57
An Application for Internal Usersp. 59
A Commercial Application by a Vendor Companyp. 80
An E-Commerce Sitep. 86
A Product Information Sitep. 92
Summaryp. 96
Referencesp. 100
A Business Case Approach to Usability Cost Justification for the Webp. 103
Introductionp. 103
Why Measure the Cost Benefit of Human Factors?p. 105
Usability Engineering in Web Site and Application Lifecyclesp. 107
What Contributions Can Usability Engineering Demonstrate?p. 108
What Is Cost-Benefit Analysis?p. 116
How Do Cost-Benefit Analyses Relate to Business Cases?p. 116
Assessing Costs and Benefits of Usability Engineeringp. 118
Benefit Calculations Examplesp. 120
Increased Sales or Revenues Resulting from Increased Completion Rates on a Web Sitep. 120
Increased Sales and Revenue from Repeat Visits to a Web Sitep. 121
Increased Sales or Revenuesp. 121
Increased User Productivityp. 122
Decreased Personnel Costsp. 123
Usability Engineering Costsp. 123
Cost and Cost-Benefit Calculation Examplesp. 125
Usability Engineering Costs for Repeat Visits to a Web Sitep. 125
Usability Engineering Costs for Application 2p. 126
Simple Cost-Benefit Analysis Techniquesp. 126
Payback Periodp. 127
Payback Period Examplep. 127
Sophisticated Selection Techniquesp. 128
Backgroundp. 128
Present Value of a Future Cash Flow Examplep. 130
Present Value of Cash Inflows Examplep. 130
Net Present Valuep. 131
Internal Rate of Returnp. 132
Further Interest-Based Selection Issuesp. 133
Summary and Recommendationsp. 137
A Look Aheadp. 138
Referencesp. 139
Marketing Usabilityp. 143
Introductionp. 143
Some Notes on Terminologyp. 144
Survey of Usability Practitionersp. 145
Marketing 101p. 145
The Marketp. 146
Internal Factorsp. 147
External Factorsp. 147
Identifying the Marketp. 149
Productp. 149
Pricingp. 151
Pricing Modelsp. 152
Promotionp. 153
Promotional Tacticsp. 154
The Internetp. 155
Internal Promotionp. 156
Conclusionsp. 157
Acknowledgmentsp. 158
Referencesp. 158
Survey Quotesp. 159
Do You Have Any Advice for Someone Interested in Marketing Usability Services?p. 159
What Do You Think Are the Biggest Challenges with Respect to Marketing Usability Services?p. 161
What Do You Think Are the Biggest Opportunities with Respect to Marketing Usability Services?p. 162
Valuing Usability for Startupsp. 165
Introductionp. 165
Notes on Data About Startupsp. 166
Resistance to Usability In Startupsp. 166
Different Values During the Internet Bubblep. 167
Time-to-Market and the "First-Mover" Advantagep. 169
Focus on Valuation-What's a Startup Worth?p. 170
Successful Startups Value the User Experiencep. 171
What Usability Offers Startupsp. 173
A Tool for Understanding and Evaluating Startupsp. 173
How Do Startups Determine Value?p. 177
How Much Should Startups Invest in Usability?p. 179
Referencesp. 181
Cost-Justifying Usability in Vendor Companiesp. 185
Introductionp. 185
Understanding Your Companyp. 186
Customer-Focused Companyp. 187
Product-Focused Companyp. 188
Technology-Focused Companyp. 188
Executive-Focused Companyp. 188
Optimal Data-Driven Companyp. 189
Cost Justification in Vendor Companiesp. 189
Cost Justification for Web Applicationsp. 191
Costsp. 192
Initial Costs of Building Usability Laboratoriesp. 193
Sustaining Costsp. 196
Benefitsp. 200
Benefits to the Vendor Company: Increased Revenuesp. 201
Benefits to the Vendor Company and Customers: Decreased Costsp. 204
Cost-Benefit Examplep. 208
Strategies for Maximizing Effectivenessp. 210
Understand and Align with Business Goals and Valuesp. 210
Perform Baseline and Ongoing Measurementsp. 210
Practice Proactive Public Relationsp. 211
Summaryp. 211
Referencesp. 212
Categories of Return on Investment and Their Practical Implicationsp. 215
Introductionp. 215
Categories of Return on Investmentp. 216
Internal Return on Investmentp. 217
Internal Social Return on Investmentp. 219
Improving Internal Social Return on Investmentp. 220
Making Connectionsp. 221
Communicating with Product Teamsp. 224
Respecting the Rest of the Product Teamp. 225
Understanding How Others Are Judgedp. 227
Supporting Groups outside Mainstream Product Developmentp. 228
Enlisting Quality Assurance Teams as Partners in User Interface Qualityp. 229
Reuse and Internal Return on Investmentp. 230
Methods for Raising Awareness of Reusep. 231
Within- and Between-Product Consistency Inspectionsp. 232
User Interface Patterns as a Tool to Promote Reusep. 233
Group User Interface Inspectionsp. 234
Graphic User Interface Rolls for Workflow Assessment and Comparisonp. 235
User-Centered Design Infrastructure and Return on Investmentp. 236
Templates and Common Documentsp. 239
External Return on Investmentp. 240
Historical, Predictive, and Simultaneous Measuresp. 241
Direct and Indirect Measuresp. 242
Measuring Improved User Experiencep. 243
First-Time Usep. 244
The Learning Experiencep. 246
User Performance by Experienced Usersp. 247
Need for Customer Support and Servicep. 249
Customer Satisfaction and Attitudesp. 251
Challenges to Measuring External Return on Investmentp. 253
User Experience Confounds Outside the User-Centered Design Teamp. 253
Addressing Confounds with Controlled Testingp. 254
Confounds Unrelated to User Experiencep. 255
Return on Investment from Communicating Improved User Experiencep. 257
Summary: Why We Categorize Usability Return on Investmentp. 258
Acknowledgmentsp. 259
Referencesp. 259
Usability Science: Tactical and Strategic Cost Justifications in Large Corporate Applicationsp. 265
Introductionp. 265
Benchmarking Awareness and Issues of Implementationp. 266
A Problem of Expertisep. 267
The Obvious Cost-Benefit Factorsp. 268
How Usability Science Can Be Utilized in a Large Corporate Settingp. 269
Usability Science as a Tactical Assetp. 270
Usability Science as a Strategic Assetp. 272
The Actual Downstream Impactp. 273
Current Trends in the Application of Usability Sciencep. 274
The Rate of Dispersion of Formal Usability Science into Large Corporate Projectsp. 275
Summary of Usability Science and Innovation Diffusionp. 277
Factors That Slow or Completely Inhibit Diffusion of Usability Science in Large Corporate Settingsp. 277
Where You Will Currently not Find Usability Sciencep. 280
Moving to the Use of Usability Science as a Strategic Assetp. 281
Case Studies: Tactical and Strategicp. 282
Liability Claimsp. 283
Service and Maintenance Costsp. 285
Customer Complaintsp. 287
Increased Complexity in New Productsp. 289
Market Competitionp. 291
Summaryp. 294
Referencesp. 295
The Return on Investment in Usability of Web Applicationsp. 297
Introductionp. 297
Return on Investment in Usability of Web Applicationsp. 298
Lessons Learned from Analysis of Return on Investment in Usability on the Webp. 300
The Attributes of Valuep. 302
Creating Valuep. 305
The Cost of Changep. 305
Reducing the Risk of Failurep. 306
Measuring Valuep. 307
How to Sell Return on Investment in Usabilityp. 310
Summary and Future Directionsp. 313
Referencesp. 314
Web Sites of Interestp. 315
Making the Business Case for International User Centered Designp. 317
Introductionp. 317
Do We Know Our Users?p. 318
Our Focus in this Chapterp. 320
Thinking Strategically about International UCDp. 321
Making Strategic versus Tactical Business Casesp. 321
The Strategic Importance of International Marketsp. 322
Linking Strategic Risk Management and International Designp. 324
The Dream of "Simple" Answersp. 326
Translation, Localization, and Internationalizationp. 327
Cultural Design Guidelinesp. 329
Custom UCD Researchp. 334
Identifying International User Factors and Contextual Variables Specifically Relevant to Your Domainp. 334
Developing Your Own List of Contextual Variablesp. 340
Understanding Costs of International Researchp. 341
Bilingual Facilitationp. 342
Simultaneous Translationp. 342
Written Translationp. 343
Adapting the Recruiting and Scheduling Strategyp. 343
Air-Travel Expensesp. 344
Per Diem Expensesp. 344
Video and Computer Equipmentp. 345
What Is the Bottom Line?p. 345
Are There Less Expensive Ways to Collect Data?p. 347
International Discount Methodsp. 347
Hiring Local Consultantsp. 347
Remote Evaluationp. 348
Maximizing the Value Of International UCD Researchp. 349
Target the Right Markets for Your Researchp. 349
Do Background Researchp. 349
Investigate Opportunities for Partneringp. 350
Do Ethnographic and Exploratory Visits Firstp. 350
Focus Stakeholders on Broader Benefits and Synergiesp. 350
Develop In-Country Resourcesp. 351
Build Cumulative Learningp. 351
Summaryp. 352
Special Thanks top. 352
Referencesp. 353
Cost Justification of Usability Engineering for International Web Sitesp. 359
Introductionp. 359
Overview of Unique Aspects of Usability Engineering for International User Interfacesp. 359
Sample Cost-Benefit Analyses of Usability Engineering on International Web Development Projectsp. 362
A Cross-Cultural E-Commerce Web Sitep. 363
A Cross-Cultural Product Information Web Sitep. 379
Summary and Conclusionsp. 382
Referencesp. 383
Return on Goodwill: Return on Investment for Accessibilityp. 385
Introductionp. 385
What Does it Mean to Make a Web Site Accessible?p. 386
Visual Impairmentsp. 386
Movement Impairmentsp. 387
The Role of Guidelines and Browser Compatibilityp. 387
The Benefits of Accessibilityp. 388
Enablementp. 390
Accessibility Helps Everyonep. 390
Public Good and Corporate Citizenshipp. 391
Social Justicep. 391
Market Sizep. 391
Niche Marketsp. 391
Positive Market Perceptionsp. 392
Legal Requirementsp. 392
Cost Savings in Service Provisionp. 394
Cost Savings in Software Development and Maintenancep. 394
When Is There No Benefit to Designing for Accessibility?p. 394
Audience Diversity and Market Sizep. 395
Estimating Benefitsp. 396
Demographic Data on Individual Differencesp. 398
Uncertainties in Estimationp. 399
The Costs of Accessible Designp. 401
Retroactive Process to Make Your Site More Accessiblep. 402
Estimating Costsp. 403
Acknowledgementsp. 413
Referencesp. 414
Ethnography for Software Developmentp. 415
A Brief Description of Ethnographyp. 418
Distinction Between Site Visits and Ethnographyp. 420
Ethnography at Different Times in the Product Development Cyclep. 421
Early in the Development Cycle: Near-Term Product Planning and Future Planningp. 422
Middle of the Product Development Cycle: Feature-Specific and Product-Specific Questionsp. 423
Final Phases of the Product Development Cyclep. 424
Both Marketing and Public Relations Are also Interested in Field Researchp. 425
Some Best Practices for Field Researchp. 425
Protocols for Visitsp. 426
Case Study 1: Windows XP Project: Guidelines for a Successful Ethnography-Anne Kirahp. 428
Phase 0: The Planning Phasep. 429
Phase 1: Recruitment of Participantsp. 432
Phase 2: Exploratory Studiesp. 435
Phase 3: Participatory Design Sessionsp. 436
Phase 4: Feature Specific Site Visits and Usability in the Fieldp. 437
Phase 5: Beta Testing in the Fieldp. 437
Case Study 2: Tablet PC Beta Testing in the Field-Evan Feldmanp. 439
Field Trial 1p. 440
Field Trial 2p. 441
Field Trial 3p. 442
Field Trial 4p. 442
Case Study 3: Msn: Forming the Pillars for a Release of Our Internet Services Through Exploratory Research-Anne Kirahp. 443
Communicationp. 443
Safety and Securityp. 443
Managing Livesp. 444
Personalizationp. 444
Development of Main Pillarsp. 444
Summaryp. 445
Referencesp. 445
Out of the Box: Approaches to Good Initial Interface Designsp. 447
Getting It Right out of the Boxp. 448
Creative Designp. 449
Preparation and Informationp. 450
Working Within the Rulesp. 451
Creativity as a Skillp. 452
Design by Analogyp. 453
Rational Designp. 455
Design Based on Knowledge of Perceptual and Cognitive Principlesp. 456
Conclusionp. 461
Acknowledgementsp. 462
Referencesp. 462
Keystroke Level Modeling as a Cost Justification Toolp. 465
Introductionp. 465
Case Studyp. 469
Model Tasksp. 472
Run Existing Applications Productivity Test and Use Results to Refine Modeling Techniquep. 479
Compare Modeling Results to Goalsp. 482
Address Unmet Goalsp. 483
Run Proposed Application Productivity Testp. 485
Conclusionsp. 487
Referencesp. 488
The Rapid Iterative Test and Evaluation Method: Better Products in Less Timep. 489
Introductionp. 489
Definition for Ritep. 490
Business Case for Ritep. 491
RITE Method Results in More Issues Fixedp. 493
RITE Method Results in More Issues Foundp. 494
RITE Method Results in Better Team Dynamicsp. 495
RITE Method Degrades Gracefullyp. 496
The Pitfalls of Using the RITE Methodp. 497
Using Rite Effectivelyp. 498
Case Studiesp. 501
Case Study 1: Microsoft Age of Empires II Tutorialp. 503
Case Study 2: Oracle Interactive Voice Response E-Mailp. 506
Case Study 3: Microsoft Digital Image Libraryp. 509
Conclusionsp. 514
Referencesp. 516
Summative Usability Testing: Measurement and Sample Sizep. 519
Introductionp. 519
Types of Usability Testsp. 521
Summative Testing: Metricsp. 523
Effectiveness, Dimensionless, and Embodied Metricsp. 524
Efficiency and the Underlying Form of Datap. 525
Satisfaction and the Reliability of Metricsp. 529
Measuring Usability: In Summaryp. 534
Statistical Issuesp. 535
The Statistical Argument, Hypotheses, Rejection, and Powerp. 535
Different Kinds of Hypothesesp. 538
Do We Need Hypotheses?p. 541
How Do We Compute Sample Size and Effect Size?p. 543
When Do We Compute Sample Size and Effect Size?p. 545
Statistics and Realityp. 547
Conclusionsp. 549
Referencesp. 551
Cost-Justifying Online Surveysp. 555
Note to Readerp. 555
Online Surveys and Their Valuep. 555
Cost and Return on Investmentp. 557
A Case Study for Online Usability Research: Staples Inc.p. 560
Mechanics of Online Surveysp. 561
Study Designp. 562
Recruitingp. 563
Study Administrationp. 566
Analysisp. 569
Mixing Online with Other Methodsp. 570
Survey Vendorsp. 570
Requests for Proposalsp. 571
Referencesp. 572
Do It Yourself: Survey Creation Toolsp. 572
Conclusionsp. 572
Acknowledgmentsp. 573
Referencesp. 573
Cost-Benefit Framework and Case Studiesp. 575
Potential Benefits of Usabilityp. 575
Estimating Costsp. 575
User-Centered Design Methodsp. 577
Costs of User-Centered Designp. 580
Making the Cost-Benefit Casep. 580
Case Studiesp. 583
Israel Aircraft Industriesp. 584
Inland Revenue/EDSp. 594
Comparisonp. 598
Taking up the Methodsp. 599
Acknowledgementsp. 600
Referencesp. 600
At Sprint, Understanding the Language of Business Gives Usability a Positive Net Present Valuep. 601
Introductionp. 601
It Is Time for a Mindset Upgradep. 601
Adopting the Business Decision-Making Mindsetp. 602
The User Is Not Youp. 602
The Business Decision-Making Mindsetp. 602
Ignored and Undervalued?p. 603
Linking Financial Results to Usabilityp. 605
The Price of Admissionp. 605
Creating a Valid Assessmentp. 606
Sprint's Program-Oriented Approachp. 607
Identifying the Link Between Usability Data and Financial Resultsp. 608
Conclusionp. 609
Brave New Worldp. 609
You Are Alignedp. 610
Referencesp. 611
Cost-Justifying Usability: The View from the Other Side of the Tablep. 613
Introductionp. 613
The Executivesp. 614
Joyce Durst, Infraworks Corporationp. 614
Sara Garrison, Inovantp. 614
Bill Mitchell, Microsoftp. 614
Kim Rachmeler, Amazon.comp. 614
A Quick Thanksp. 615
Question #1: What Arguments to Pay for Usability Support Have You Said "Yes" To?p. 615
Question #2: Which Arguments Have You Said "No" To?p. 617
Question #3: What Would You Like to hear from Your Would-Be Usability Support (The In-House Team or a Consultant), to Help You Make Your Decision to "Buy" or Not?p. 618
Three Final Considerationsp. 619
Starting Upp. 619
The Attribution Problemp. 619
The "Compleat Angler" (for Usability Funding)p. 620
And So...p. 620
Indexp. 623
About the Authorsp. 651
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780120958115
ISBN-10: 0120958112
Series: Interactive Technologies
Audience: Professional
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 640
Published: 4th April 2005
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 23.42 x 19.15  x 3.07
Weight (kg): 1.38
Edition Number: 2
Edition Type: Revised