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Cosmic Plasma : Astrophysics & Space Science Library - Hannes Alfven

Cosmic Plasma

Astrophysics & Space Science Library


Published: 28th February 1981
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The general background of this monograph and the aim of it is described in detail in Chapter I. As stated in 1.7 it is written according to the principle that "when rigour appears to conflict with simplicity, simplicity is given preference", which means that it is intended for a rather broad public. Not only graduate students but also advanced undergraduates should be able to understand at least most of it. This monograph is the result of many years of inspiring discussions with a number of colleagues, for which I want to thank them very much. Especially I should mention the groups in Stockholm and La Jolla: in Stockholm, Dr Carl-Gunne Flilthammar and many of his collaborators, including Drs Lars Block, Per Carlqvist, Lennart lindberg, Michael Raadu, Staffan Torven, Miroslav Babic, and Itlgvar Axniis, and further, Drs Bo Lehnert and Bjorn Bonnevier, all at the Royal Institute of Technology. Of other col- leagues in Sweden, I should mention Dr Bertel Laurent, Stockholm University, Dr Aina Elvius, The Stockholm Observatory, and Dr Bengt Hultqvist, Kiruna. In La Jolla my thanks go first of all to Dr Gustaf Arrhenius, who once invited me to La Jolla, which was the start of a most interesting collaboration; further, to Dr W. B.

I / Survey.- I.1. Experimental and Theoretical Approach to Plasma Physics.- I.2. Plasma Phenomena in Laboratory and Space.- I.2.1. Scaling Procedures.- I.2.2. Simulation Experiments.- I.2.3. Comparison Between Laboratory and Space Investigations.- I.3. Field and Particle Aspects of Plasmas.- I.4. Present State of the Classical Theory.- I.5. Boundary Conditions. Circuit Dependence.- I.6. Cosmology and the Origin of the Solar System.- I.7. Aims of the Monograph.- II / Electric Currents in Space Plasmas.- II.1. Dualism in Physics.- II.2. Particle-Related Phenomena in Plasma Physics.- II.3. Magnetic Field lines.- II.3.1. Magnetic Field and Electric Current Description of the Magnetosphere.- II.3.2. Particle Motion in the Magnetosphere.- II.3.3. Conclusions About 'Field Line Reconnection' and 'Merging' in the Stationary Magnetosphere.- II.4. Filaments.- II.4.1. Observations of Filaments.- II.4.2. Constriction of a Discharge.- II.4.3. Pinch Effect. The Bennett Relation.- II.4.4. Filamentary Currents in Force-Free Magnetic Fields.- II.4.5. Theory of Magnetic Ropes.- II.4.6. Ion Pumps.- II.4.7. Flux Ropes in the Ionosphere of Venus.- II.5. Local Plasma Properties and the Circuit.- II.5.1. Boundary Conditions.- II.5.2. 'Invisible' Transfer of Energy.- II.5.3. 'Magnetic Merging' Theories.- II.6. Electric Double Layers.- II.6.1. General Properties of Double Layers.- II.6.2. Double Layers in the Magnetosphere.- II.6.3. Energy Release in Double Layers.- II.6.4. Exploding Double Layers.- II.6.5. A Circuit with a Double Layer.- II.7. Field-Aligned Currents as 'Cables'.- II.8. An Expanding Circuit.- II.9. Different Types of Plasma Regions.- II.9.1. 'Passive' Plasma Regions.- II.9.2. 'Active'Plasma Regions.- II.9.3. Plasma Cables.- II.9.4. Ionospheric Projection of Active and Passive Plasma Regions.- II.9.5. Boundary Current Sheets.- II.10. Cellular Structure of Space.- II.11. Fine Structure of Active Plasma Regions.- III / Circuits.- III.1. Importance of Electric Current Models.- III.1.1. Particle Description.- III.1.2. Different Types of Electric Currents.- III.1.3. Transfer of Energy Between a Circuit and a Moving Plasma.- III.2. The Auroral Circuits.- III.3. Rotating Magnetized Body Surrounded by a Plasma.- III.4. The Heliospheric Current System.- III.4.1. The 'Sector Structure' and the Equatorial Current Layer.- III.4.2. Construction of the Heliospheric Current Model.- III.4.3. Properties of the Heliospheric Circuit.- III.4.4. Extrapolation to Galactic Dimensions: Double Radio Sources.- III.5. Circuits of Magnetospheric Tail, Comets, and Venus.- III.5.1. Tail Circuit and Magnetic Substorms.- III.5.2. Current System in Comets.- III.5.3. Current System in the Magnetosphere of Venus.- III.6. Magnetospheric Circuit.- III.6.1. Zero Order Approximation: One-Particle Problem.- III.6.2. First Order Approximation: Plasma Flux Small.- III.6.3. The Three First-Approximation Circuits.- III.6.4. Phenomena Produced by First Approximation Currents.- III.6.5. Second Order Approximation. Realistic Plasma Flow.- III.6.6. Magnetic Field Changes.- III.6.7. Front (Shock Front) Circuit.- III.6.8. Magnetopause Circuit.- III.6.9. Solar Wind - Auroral Circuit.- III.6.10. The Tail Circuit.- III.6.11. Third Approximation and Comparison with Observation.- III.6.12. The Three-Ring Model.- III.7. Other Magnetospheres.- III.8. Solar Prominence Circuit and Solar Flares.- III.9. Solar Wind Acceleration.- III.10. Transfer of Energy from the Solar Core to the Aurora.- IV / Theory of Cosmic Plasmas.- IV.1. Classical Theory and Its Difficulties.- IV.1.1. The Reverse Deflection.- IV.2. Ionization.- IV.2.1. Ionization by Light, by Particle Radiation, and by Electric Currents.- IV.2.2. Transition Between a Plasma and a Neutral Gas.- IV.3. Cosmic Abundances and Differentiation.- IV.3.1. Cosmic Abundances.- IV.3.2. Observations of Chemical Differentiation.- IV.3.3. Separation Due to Different Ionization Potentials.- IV.3.4. Separation Due to Mass Differences.- IV.3.5. Separation Due to Different Vapor Pressures.- IV.4. Turbulence.- IV.5. Flux Amplification.- IV.5.1. Production of Cosmic Magnetic Fields.- IV.5.2. Self-Exciting Dynamos.- IV.5.3. Theories of Self-Exciting Dynamos.- IV.5.4. A Flux Amplification Mechanism.- IV.5.5. Production of Cosmic Magnetic Fields by the Kink Instability.- IV.6. Critical Velocity.- IV.6.1. Prediction of the Critical Velocity in the Early Solar System.- IV.6.2. Experimental Discovery.- IV.6.3. Theory.- IV.6.4. The Critical Velocity and Space Research.- IV.7. Dusty Plasma.- IV.7.1. Solid Particles as Part of a Plasma.- IV.7.2. Electromagnetically and Gravitationally Controlled Motion of Solid Particles.- IV.8. Formation and Evolution of Interstellar Clouds.- IV.8.1. Three Special Cases.- IV.8.2. Force-Free Magnetic Fields and the Production of Filaments.- IV.8.3. Do Magnetic Fields Aid or Counteract a Compression?.- IV.8.4. Pinch Compression of Dark Interstellar Clouds.- IV.9. Ambiplasma.- IV.9.1. Properties of an Ambiplasma.- IV.9.2. The Annihilation Reactions.- IV.9.3. Radiations from an Ambiplasma.- IV.9.4. Main Ambiplasma Problems.- IV.9.5. Separation of Matter and Antimatter.- IV.9.6. On the Co-Existence of Matter and Antimatter.- IV.10. High Energy Phenomena.- IV.10.1. Sources of Energy and Acceleration Processes.- IV.10.1.1. Varying Magnetic Fields.- IV.10.1.2. Acceleration in Double Layers.- IV.10.1.3. Annihilation.- IV.10.1.4. Gravitation.- IV.10.2. Magnetic Pumping.- IV.10.3. Regions of Cosmic Ray Acceleration.- IV.10.3.1. Heliospheric and Galactic Cosmic Radiation.- IV. 10.3.2. Origin of Galactic Cosmic Rays.- V / Origin of the Solar System.- V.1. How We Can Reconstruct Earlier Epochs.- V.2. Sources of Information.- V.3. Impact of Magnetospheric Results.- V.3.1. Active and Passive Plasma Regions.- V.3.2. Externally Driven Currents.- V.4. Electromagnetic Effects Aiding the Formation and Contraction of Clouds.- V.5. Chemical Differentation in the Primeval Cloud.- V.6. Intrinsically Produced Currents.- V.7. Band Structure and the Critical Velocity.- V.8. Solar System in Formation.- V.8.1. Interstellar Clouds.- V.8.2. Formation of Protostars.- V.8.3. Planet-Satellite Formation.- V.8.4. Observation of Solar Systems in Formation.- V.9. Hetegony and the 'Hetegonic Principle'.- VI / Cosmology.- VI.1. The State of Cosmology.- VI.1.1. Historical Survey.- VI.1.2. The Big Bang Hypothesis.- VI.1.3. Homogeneous and Inhomogeneous Models.- VI.1.3.1. Cellular Structure of Space.- VI. 1.3.2. Mass Distribution in the Universe.- VI.1.3.3. Mass of the Metagalaxy and the Schwarzschild Limit.- VI.1.4. The Hubble Expansion.- VI.1.4.1. The Hubble Parameter.- VI.1.4.2. Euclidean Model of the Evolution of the Metagalaxy.- VI.2. Coexistence of Matter and Antimatter.- VI.2.1. Matter-Antimatter Symmetry.- VI.2.2. Matter and Antimatter Cells.- VI.2.3. Size of Cells: Galactic or Smaller?.- VI.2.4. Structure of a Symmetric Galaxy.- VI.2.4.1. Solar System.- VI.2.4.2. Cometary Reservoir.- VI.2.5. Objections to the Existence of Antimatter.- VI. 3. Annihilation as a Source of Energy.- VI.3.1. Argument for the Existence of Antimatter.- VI.3.2. Similarity of Electromagnetic Radiation from the Two Kinds of Matter.- VI.3.3. Radiation from Annihilation Processes.- VI.3.4. Leidenfrost Layers and Annihilation at the Cell Walls.- VI.3.5. Annihilation in Cosmic Clouds.- VI.3.6. Bodies Falling into a Star of Opposite Kind of Matter.- VI.3.7. Model of an Ambistar.- VI.3.7.1. Ambistar Model I.- VI.3.7.2. Stellar Collisions.- VI.3.7.3. Ambistar Model II.- VI.3.7.4. Observable Properties of an Ambistar.- VI.3.7.5. Blueshifts.- VI.3.7.6. QSO Scenario.- VI.3.7.7. Continuous X-Ray Background Radiation.- VI.4. Hubble Expansion in a Euclidean Space.- VI.4.1. Non-Cosmological Redshifts of Some QSOs.- VI.4.2. Consequences of Non-Cosmological Interpretation of QSO Redshifts.- VI.5. A Model for the Evolution of the Metagalaxy.- VI.5.1. The Proto-Metagalaxy.- VI.5.2. The Kinetic Energy of the Hubble Expansion.- VI.5.3. Formation of the Proto-Metagalaxy.- VI.5.4. Other Cosmological Problems.- VI.6. Other Metagalaxies.- VI.7. Discussion.- VI.8. Conclusions.- References.

ISBN: 9789027711519
ISBN-10: 9027711518
Series: Astrophysics & Space Science Library
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 168
Published: 28th February 1981
Publisher: Springer
Country of Publication: NL
Dimensions (cm): 24.77 x 17.15  x 1.91
Weight (kg): 0.5