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Copyright, Limitations and the Three-step Test: v.13 : An Analysis of the Three-step Test in International and EC Copyright Law - Martin Senftleben

Copyright, Limitations and the Three-step Test: v.13

An Analysis of the Three-step Test in International and EC Copyright Law

Hardcover

Published: 24th February 2004
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The three-step test'by which limitations on exclusive copyrights are confined to 'certain special cases' which do not conflict with a 'normal exploitation of the work' and do not 'unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the author''is among the most enduring of standards affecting limitations on intellectual property rights. Its field of application is the delicate balance between exclusive rights and sufficient breathing space for the free flow of ideas and information. However, the emerging information society has thrown numerous unforeseen obstacles in the once-clear path of its implementation. Can the traditional balance between grants and reservations of copyright law be recalibrated along the lines of the three-step test in order to meet current and future needs? Controversies over this crucial question'in Europe, the U.S., Australia, and elsewhere, as well as in two significant WTO panels in 2002'have brought the three-step test into focus, the essential principle governing copyright limitations in the information society.Investigating the development, structure, and function of the three-step test in international copyright law with thoroughness and precision, Copyright, Limitations and the Three-Step Test offers a close and insightful analysis of its continuing utility for the twenty-first century. The book includes:viable restatements of the rationales of copyright protection for the emerging IP environment;new insights into the relationship between copyright protection and copyright limitations;in-depth explanation of the structure and functioning of the three-step test;detailed interpretations of each criterion of the test;discussion of the two WTO panel reports dealing with the test;a proposal for the further improvement of the copyright system and the international rules governing copyright law;detailed information about international conference material concerning the test; anddiscussion of potential future trends in copyright law.The author provides many examples that demonstrate the test's impact on different types of limitations, such as private use privileges and the U.S. fair use doctrine. He explains the test's role in the European Copyright Directive. The detailed examination and explanation of the three-step test will be of extraordinary value to policymakers, judges, and lawyers in the field of intellectual property law seeking to react adequately to the challenges of the digital environment. INFORMATION LAW SERIES 13

Forewordp. vii
Contentsp. ix
List of Abbreviationsp. xiii
Introductionp. 1
The Three-Step Test Within the Copyright Systemp. 5
Rationales of Copyright Protectionp. 6
The Historical Interplay of Natural Law and Utilitarian Notionsp. 7
The Labourer's Claim and the Entitlement of the Publicp. 10
The Cultural Rationale as the Essential Foundation of Copyrightp. 17
Justifications for Copyright Limitationsp. 22
Freedom of Expression and Informationp. 24
The Dissemination of Informationp. 30
The Right to Privacyp. 32
The Enhancement of Democracyp. 33
Copyright's Delicate Balancep. 34
The Contextual Background to the Three-Step Testp. 43
The Berne Conventionp. 43
The 'Minor Reservations Doctrine' as a Precursorp. 45
The Introduction of the Test at the 1967 Stockholm Conferencep. 47
National Limitations at the Time of the Stockholm Conferencep. 52
The Federal Republic of Germanyp. 53
The Netherlandsp. 58
Francep. 63
The United Kingdomp. 67
Indiap. 75
The Dualism Inherent in the Three-Step Testp. 81
The TRIPs Agreementp. 83
The Double Insertion of the Three-Step Testp. 84
Article 13 TRIPs as a Berne-Plus Elementp. 87
The WIPO 'Internet' Treatiesp. 91
Previous Discussions Based on the Three-Step Testp. 92
The Debate at the 1996 WIPO Conferencep. 96
The Interpretation of the Three Criteriap. 99
Principles of Interpretationp. 99
The Vienna Convention on the Law of Treatiesp. 99
The Material Available for Interpretationp. 104
The Wording of the Three-Step Testp. 105
The Context Surrounding the Three-Step Testp. 105
The Role of WTO Panel Reportsp. 107
The Interconnection of Supplementary Sourcesp. 110
The US Fair Use Doctrinep. 112
The Language Situationp. 113
The Circle of Relevant Limitationsp. 115
Two Different Functionsp. 118
Controlling Limitations Directlyp. 118
Serving as an Additional Safeguardp. 121
The System of the Three Criteriap. 125
The Basic Rulep. 126
The Two Conditionsp. 127
Overview of the Regulatory Frameworkp. 131
Certain Special Casesp. 133
Certaintyp. 133
Specialityp. 137
Assessing Quantitative and Qualitative Considerationsp. 138
Rejecting the Quantitative Concept of the WTO Panelp. 140
Bringing Qualitative Considerations into Focusp. 144
Defining a Special Casep. 152
Clarifying the Interplay with the Third Criterionp. 152
The Impact on Internationally Recognised Limitationsp. 153
The Impact on Remaining National Limitationsp. 157
Personal and Internal Usep. 158
Fair Usep. 162
Conflict with a Normal Exploitationp. 168
The Historical Approach of Bornkammp. 169
The Empirical Approach of Ricketsonp. 171
The Development of a Normative Conceptp. 177
The Guideline Given at the Stockholm Conferencep. 177
Adapting the Guideline to the Digital Environmentp. 180
Bringing the Economic Core of Copyright into Focusp. 184
Determining the Correct Reference Pointp. 189
Defining a Conflict with a Normal Exploitationp. 193
The Impact on Internationally Recognised Limitationsp. 194
Criticism and Parodyp. 194
Utilisation for Teachingp. 197
The 'Minor Reservations Doctrine'p. 198
Compulsory Broadcasting Licencesp. 201
The Impact on Remaining National Limitationsp. 202
Strictly Personal Usep. 203
Librariesp. 206
Unreasonable Prejudice to Legitimate Interestsp. 210
The Reference to Interests Instead of Rightsp. 213
Economic Interestsp. 216
Non-Economic Interestsp. 219
Article 9(2) BC and Article 10 WCTp. 221
Article 13 TRIPsp. 223
The Proportionality Testp. 226
Identifying Legitimate Interestsp. 227
Avoiding an Unreasonable Prejudicep. 235
The Impact on Internationally Recognised Limitationsp. 241
The System of the Three Criteria Revisitedp. 243
The Three-Step Test in the European Copyright Directivep. 245
The Contextual Backgroundp. 246
The Drafting History of Article 5(5) CDp. 246
The Framework Set Out for Limitationsp. 250
The Objectives Underlying the Directivep. 253
The Function of Article 5(5) CDp. 255
The Impact on the List of Permissible Limitationsp. 257
Certain Special Casesp. 257
Specialityp. 258
No Need for Further Specificationp. 264
Conflict with a Normal Exploitationp. 268
Unreasonable Prejudice to Legitimate Interestsp. 273
Overview of International Obligationsp. 277
The Addressees of Article 5(5) CDp. 278
Summaryp. 283
Conclusionp. 295
Aligning Copyright Law with the Users among Authorsp. 296
Restructuring International Copyright Lawp. 304
Table of Contents provided by Rittenhouse. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9789041122674
ISBN-10: 9041122672
Series: Information Law S.
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 368
Published: 24th February 2004
Publisher: Kluwer Law International
Country of Publication: NL
Dimensions (cm): 24.1 x 16.5  x 2.5
Weight (kg): 0.7