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Continuities and Discontinuities in Development : Topics in Developmental Psychobiology - Robert N. Emde

Continuities and Discontinuities in Development

Topics in Developmental Psychobiology

By: Robert N. Emde (Editor), Robert J. Harmon (Editor)

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Published: June 1984
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"Continuities and Discontinuities in Development" was the theme for the Second Biennial DPRG Retreat, a three-day meeting held at Estes Park, Colorado, in June 1982. The meeting was sponsored by the Devel­ opmental Psychobiology Research Group (DPRG) of the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Colorado School of Medicine. The DPRG is a group of individuals conducting research in many areas of develop­ ment who meet on a regular basis to present and discuss their work and receive feedback and encouragement. In 1974, this group was awarded an endowment fund by the Grant Foundation, the aims of which were to facilitate the research of young investigators, to encourage new re­ search, and to provide seed money for collaborative ventures. Much of the work reported in this volume and in the earlier volume from the First DPRG Retreat is the result of that support. In addition to the work of the members of the DPRG, a select group of guests was invited to participate in the meeting and contribute to this volume. The chapters by William Greenough, Jerome Kagan, and Michael Rutter result from the participation of these scholars at the retreat. We would like to acknowledge the support of a number of indi­ viduals who have been instrumental in supporting the DPRG as a whole, as well as those who contributed directly to the Second Biennial Retreat and to the volume.

1 Entering a New Era in the Search for Developmental Continuities.- New Views of Discontinuities and Continuities.- Changing Biological Models.- New Strategies for Longitudinal Study.- Plan of the Volume.- References.- I Current Research Perspectives Related to the Continuity of Early Experience.- 2 Continuity and Change in the Opening Years of Life.- Development as a Connected Sequence of Stages.- The Challenge to Connectivity.- Ontogenetic Adaptation.- The Attractiveness of Connectivity.- The Argument for Discontinuity.- The Preservation of Individual Differences: The Evidence.- The Preservation of Inhibition.- The Maturation of Cognitive Competences.- The Growth of Memory.- The Growth of Self-Awareness.- A Sense of Right and Wrong.- The Role of Inference.- Empathy.- The Adaptiveness of Standards.- Anxiety to Mastery Failure.- Motivation on Problem Tasks.- Self-descriptive Utterances.- Recognition of Self.- Summary.- References.- 3 Continuities and Discontinuities in Socioemotional Development: Empirical and Conceptual Perspectives.- Meanings of Continuity.- Methodological Issues.- Strength of Continuities in Behavior.- Reasons for Expecting Discontinuity.- Situationism.- Situational Effects.- Individual Differences.- Person-Situation Interactions.- Persistence of Environmental Effects.- Developmental Considerations.- Luck, or the Roulette Wheel View of Life's Chances.- Possible Mechanisms Underlying Continuities.- Continuities in the Environment.- Selection of Environments.- Opportunities.- Effects on the Environment.- Vulnerability, Resilience, and Coping Skills.- Habits, Attitudes, and Self-Concepts.- The Effects of Experience on Neural and Neuroendocrine Systems.- Imprinting and Other Similar Phenomena.- Effects on Personality Structure.- Overview on Continuities and Discontinuities.- References.- 4 Age-related Aspects of Experience Effects upon Brain Structure.- Plasticity in Brain Development.- Adult Brain Plasticity.- A Mechanism of Plasticity: Selective Preservation of Synapses.- The Primate Geniculostriate Visual System.- Development of the Geniculostriate System.- Effects of Experience Manipulation during Development.- Developmental Patterns in Other Neuronal Systems.- Selective Preservation as a Continuing Process in Brain Function.- References.- II Studies of Discontinuities and Developmental Transitions.- 5 Detecting Developmental Discontinuities: Methods and Measurement.- Two Methods for Detecting Discontinuities.- Scalogram Analysis.- Method of Multiple Tasks.- Second-Order Discontinuities.- Correlation Method: Relations among Domains.- Concordance Method: Relations among Conditions.- Summary and Conclusions.- References.- 6 Developmental Continuities and Discontinuities in a Form of Familial Dyslexia.- Two Kinds of Continuity in Genetic Family Studies.- Genetic Methods and Results (Level I): The Use of Linkage.- Analysis.- Cognitive Methods and Results (Level III).- Cross-Generational Continuity.- Lateral Continuity.- Discussion.- Methods and Results Pertaining to the Surface Phenotype (Level IV).- Cross-Generational Continuity.- Lateral Continuity.- The Neurological Basis of Developmental Dyslexia (Level II).- Overall Discussion.- References.- 7 The Study of Transitions: Conceptual and Methodological Issues.- The Concept of Transitions.- Transitional Event.- Transitional Period.- Transitional Mechanism.- The Concept of Change.- Level Change.- Structural Change.- Centrality Change.- Types of Transitions.- Developmental Transitions.- Endogenous and Exogenous Transitional Events.- Typologies of Life Events.- Methodological Considerations.- Design Strategies.- Data Analytic Strategies.- Methodology and Theory.- Two Examples of the Study of Transitions.- Conclusion.- References.- 8 Self-produced locomotion: an organizer of emotional, Cognitive, and social development in infancy.- Self-produced Locomotion in Theoretical Perspective.- Development of Spatial Sensorimotor Performance: Fear of.- Heights.- Visual Cliff Research.- Spatial Orientation Research.- Delayed Locomotion: A Case Study.- Interpretation.- Social Communication.- Concept Formation.- Concluding Remarks on Empirical Studies.- Self-produced Locomotion as a Mediator of Development...- Implications for the Development of the Self.- Epilogue.- References.- 9 Effects of Hospitalization On Early Child Development.- The Literature on Childhood Hospitalization.- Psychological Effects of Hospitalization on Young, Seriously 111,.- Asthmatic Children.- Variables Affecting Response to Hospitalization.- Variables Illustrated with Empirical Results from the Study of.- Asthmatic Children.- Additional Variables Reported in the Literature.- Discussion.- Conclusions.- References.- III Studies of Continuities.- 10 The Development of Representation from 10 to 28 Months: Differential Stability of Language and Symbolic Play.- Types of Stability.- The Concurrent Development of Language and Symbolic Play...- Method.- Longitudinal Stabilities in Language Development.- Longitudinal Stabilities in the Development of Symbolic Play.- Conjoint Stability of Language and Symbolic Play: Intercorrelations between Two Homotypic Progressions.- General Implications.- References.- 11 Developmental Transformations in Mastery Motivation: Measurement and Validation.- Measuring Mastery Motivation.- Methodological Issues.- Development of the Mastery Tasks.- Reliability of the Measures of Mastery Motivation.- Validity of the Measures of Mastery Motivation.- Continuity and Change in Mastery Motivation.- A Transformation in the Second Half of the First Year of Life.- Continuity and Change during Early Childhood.- The Interrelationship of Mastery Motivation and Cognitive Development: Problems and Possible Solutions.- Summary.- References.- 12 The Development of Cerebral Specialization In Infants: Electrophysiological and Behavioral Studies.- Cerebral Specialization in Adults.- Clinical, Anatomical, and Behavioral Studies.- Electrophysiological Studies.- Cerebral Specialization and Development.- Dichotic Listening Studies.- Hand Preference Studies.- Infant Electrophysiological Studies: EEG and AEP Discrete.- Stimulus Paradigms.- Infant Electrophysiological Studies: AEP Probe Paradigm...- Conclusion.- References.- 13 Continuity and change in socioemotional development during the second year.- The Organization of This Research.- Method and Measures.- Results and Discussion.- Stability and Change in the Security of Attachment.- Stability of Attachment and Socioemotional Continuity during the Second Year.- Summary and Conclusion.- References.- 14 Continuities and Change in Early Emotional Life: Maternal Perceptions of Surprise, Fear, and Anger.- Data from Our Laboratory.- Replicability of Early Onset and Age Course for Discrete.- Emotions.- The Basis for Maternal Reports.- Surprise.- Fear.- Anger.- Other Emotions with Early Onset: Interest, Enjoyment, and.- Distress.- Discussion.- References.- 15 Early Experience Effects: Evidence for Continuity?.- Linda S. Crnic.- Continuity and Discontinuity: Issues in Developmental.- Psychobiology.- Early Experience Research.- Definitions.- Reasons for Slow Progress.- Contribution to Continuity-Discontinuity Issues.- An Example of Early Experience Research: Malnutrition Effects on.- Food Motivation.- Prior Findings.- Explanations for Altered Behavior.- New Findings.- Conclusions.- References.- 15 Early Experience Effects: Evidence for Continuity?.- Continuity and Discontinuity: Issues in Developmental Psychobiology.- Early Experience Research.- Definitions.- Reasons for Slow Progress.- Contribution to Continuity-Discontinuity Issues.- An Example of Early Experience Research: Malnutrition Effects on Food Motivation.- Prior Findings.- Explanations for Altered Behavior.- New Findings.- Conclusions.- References.- IV Cross-Disciplinary Strategies in Searching for Continuities.- 16 Mathematical-statistical model building in analysis of Developmental data.- Steps for Doing a MASMOB Study.- The ISEER Steps.- Summary of Rationale.- Summary of Symbolism.- A Substantive Example.- Simplex Examples.- Multivariable Simplex Models.- Structural Models Seen through Development.- Reliability as a Latent Structure Model.- Overlapping Process Models.- Changing Functions and Changing Subjects.- Simultaneous Analysis of Means and Structure.- A Summarizing Example.- Summary and Conclusions.- References.- 17 Continuity of Personality: A Genetic Perspective.- The Quantitative Genetic Approach.- The Developmental Genetic Approach.- References.

ISBN: 9780306415630
ISBN-10: 0306415631
Series: Topics in Developmental Psychobiology
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 418
Published: June 1984
Publisher: Springer Science+Business Media
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 24.13 x 16.51  x 3.81
Weight (kg): 0.77