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Content Delivery Networks : Web Switching for Security, Availability and Speed - Scott Hull

Content Delivery Networks

Web Switching for Security, Availability and Speed

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Published: 26th February 2002
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In the last several years, the Internet has evolved from a mechanism for transporting text and simple images to a vehicle for multimedia and other bandwidth-heavy content types that demand higher service levels than the Internet alone can provide. These factors, coupled with an increased awareness on the part of content providers and e-business leaders that Web site performance plays a crucial role in online success, are driving the CDN (content delivery network) services surge. CDN services are designed to improve Web site performance by routing content on a specialised overlay network of servers or datacenters that tap a variety of content-speeding technologies, including caching, load balancing, and replication. On top of these infrastructures, CDN providers offer a variety of services ranging from basic routing of static or dynamic content to streaming media and professional services.

Forewordp. xix
Acknowledgmentsp. xxi
Introductionp. xxiii
Introduction to Content Networkingp. 1
Objectivesp. 2
User Expectationsp. 2
Performancep. 3
Availabilityp. 3
Securityp. 3
Anonymityp. 4
Personalization/Relevancyp. 4
Privacyp. 4
Content Provider Expectationsp. 5
Securityp. 5
Controlp. 5
Manageabilityp. 6
Scalabilityp. 6
Flexibilityp. 6
Diversity (Users and Devices)p. 6
Customer Demographics/Datap. 6
Differentiationp. 7
Profitabilityp. 7
Conflicting Expectationsp. 7
Structure of the Internetp. 8
Problems of IPp. 8
What Is Content Networking?p. 9
Living on the Edgep. 9
Content Edge Networking (CEN)--The Data Centerp. 10
CEN Evolutionp. 10
Subscriber Edge Networking--Networking on the Edgep. 24
SEN IP Servicesp. 24
CDNs and "Overlay" Networksp. 25
Who Needs a Content Networking Solution?p. 32
Enterprisesp. 32
Service Providersp. 33
The Future of Content Networkingp. 34
Review Questionsp. 34
End Notesp. 36
Ethernetp. 37
Objectivesp. 38
DIX and IEEE 802.3p. 38
Frame Formatsp. 39
Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD)p. 42
Collision Domains and Broadcast Domainsp. 43
Duplexingp. 45
Flow Controlp. 46
Link Integrity Test and the Ethernet Heartbeatp. 46
Fast Ethernetp. 47
Auto-Negotiationp. 48
Gigabit Ethernetp. 50
Deploying Ethernetp. 51
Summaryp. 56
Review Questionsp. 56
Advanced Ethernet Topicsp. 57
Objectivesp. 58
Spanning-Tree Protocolp. 59
Spanning-Tree Protocol Port Statesp. 59
Election of the Root Switchp. 60
Bridge Protocol Data Unitsp. 60
How the STP Algorithm Worksp. 62
Implications of STP in a LAN Environmentp. 63
Virtual Local Area Networks--VLANsp. 64
Benefits of VLANsp. 64
VLAN Trunk Protocolp. 67
How VTP Worksp. 68
VLAN Trunkingp. 68
Inter-Switch Link (ISL) Encapsulationp. 69
IEEE 802.1q TRUNKINGp. 71
The Role of VLANs in Modern Data Centersp. 72
EtherChannelp. 72
EtherChannel and VLANsp. 74
Summaryp. 74
Review Questionsp. 74
HTTP and the World Wide Webp. 77
Objectivesp. 78
Historyp. 78
How It Worksp. 79
HTTP/0.9p. 80
HTTP/1.0p. 80
HTTP/1.1p. 81
Request Methodsp. 85
Response Status Code Definitionsp. 86
Message Headersp. 89
HTTP Securityp. 95
HTTP Protocol Analysisp. 98
Summaryp. 109
Review Questionsp. 109
Suggested Readingp. 109
SSLp. 111
Objectivesp. 112
Crypto 101p. 113
Secret Key Cryptographyp. 113
Key Sizep. 114
Public Key Cryptographyp. 115
Putting It Together: Hybrid Encryption Schemesp. 115
Certificatesp. 116
Configuring and Installing Your Own SSL Serverp. 120
Unpacking the Packagesp. 121
Compiling OpenSSLp. 121
Configuring and Compiling Apache with mod_sslp. 122
Creating the Certificate and Installing Apachep. 122
Using Apache with SSL Supportp. 125
Generating New CSRsp. 125
SSL: The Protocolp. 126
SSL Messagesp. 127
Accelerating SSLp. 136
How SSL Acceleration Worksp. 136
Summaryp. 141
Review Questionsp. 142
DNS and Content Networkingp. 145
Objectivesp. 146
Historyp. 146
How DNS Worksp. 148
General Operational Overviewp. 148
Detailed Operational Overviewp. 149
Basic DNS Configurationp. 154
Basic DNS Auditingp. 159
Advanced DNS Configurationp. 163
RTT Measurementsp. 163
Wildcard DNSp. 167
RR Setsp. 168
Subdomain Delegationp. 170
DNS Thrashingp. 171
Registering Domain Namesp. 172
General Processp. 173
Contactsp. 174
WHOIS Databasesp. 175
Problems with DNSp. 177
The Futurep. 178
Summaryp. 179
Review Questionsp. 179
Internet Structure and Functionp. 183
Objectivesp. 184
Global Structurep. 185
Hierarchical Organizationp. 185
Internet Routing with BGPp. 198
Summaryp. 206
Review Questionsp. 207
Web Servers, Cookies, and Web Cachesp. 209
Objectivesp. 210
The Process of Fetching Contentp. 210
Requesting Static Contentp. 211
Requesting Dynamic Contentp. 213
Cachingp. 214
The Basicsp. 214
Transparent vs. Nontransparent Cachingp. 217
Forward vs. Reverse Proxy Cachingp. 218
Edge Caching and Content Delivery Networksp. 221
Cache Interceptionp. 223
Caching Productsp. 228
Adding State: HTTP Cookiesp. 231
Understanding "State"p. 231
Cookiesp. 232
Summaryp. 233
Review Questionsp. 233
Server Load Balancingp. 235
Objectivesp. 236
Scaling the Internetp. 236
Single Server Approachp. 236
Server Farm Approachp. 237
What Is Server Load Balancing?p. 237
Virtual Server Group and Virtual IPp. 238
Technical Benefitsp. 238
Business Benefitsp. 240
Applicationsp. 241
Server Load Balancing Operationsp. 242
Solutionsp. 242
The Cisco Solutions--Local Directorp. 243
The Cisco ArrowPoint Load Balancersp. 247
The Nortel Web Switchp. 248
Summaryp. 263
Review Questionsp. 264
VRRP and HSRPp. 267
Objectivesp. 268
Virtual Router Redundancy Protocolp. 269
Operationsp. 271
Protocolp. 272
Case studiesp. 274
VRRPep. 279
HSRPp. 279
Protocolp. 280
Case Studiesp. 283
Summaryp. 286
Review Questionsp. 287
Global Server Load Balancingp. 289
Objectivesp. 290
Solutionsp. 291
Simple Failoverp. 291
High Availabilityp. 292
Geographic Load Balancingp. 292
How It Worksp. 293
Dynamic Site Selectionp. 293
Backup Serversp. 294
DNS Basedp. 294
Routing Protocol Basedp. 296
Packet Loss--An Asidep. 298
Caveatsp. 300
Globalization Techniquesp. 301
Passive Techniquesp. 302
Footrace Techniquesp. 307
Active Techniquesp. 309
Case Studiesp. 312
Directory Services for J. Magellan and Sonsp. 312
Your News Corpp. 314
Productsp. 316
Summaryp. 318
Review Questionsp. 319
Content Networking and Securityp. 321
Objectivesp. 322
Securityp. 322
Mitigating Denial of Servicep. 323
Filters and Firewallsp. 326
Filters and Filteringp. 331
Firewalls and Fire Wallingp. 336
High-Availability Content Security Solutionsp. 340
State Updates and Clusteringp. 347
Firewall Load Balancingp. 349
Firewall Load Balancing Basicsp. 351
Summaryp. 358
Review Questionsp. 360
Application Redirectionp. 361
Objectivesp. 362
Web Cachingp. 363
Web Caching Applicationsp. 364
Web Cache Redirection (WCR)p. 365
WCCP and WCRp. 371
DNS Redirectionp. 372
Operation and Benefitsp. 373
DNS Server Health Monitoringp. 379
Overflow and Backup DNSp. 380
High Availability DNSp. 381
SSL Offloadingp. 384
Caveats to SSL Redirection / Offloadp. 386
Other Applicationsp. 388
Combinationsp. 388
Summaryp. 388
Review Questionsp. 389
Bandwidth Managementp. 391
Objectivesp. 392
SLA and the Business Case for Managing Bandwidthp. 393
Before the Bandwidth Management Erap. 393
PointCast Floods Networksp. 393
Push Technology Solutionsp. 394
Practical Applications of Bandwidth Management in E-Commercep. 395
ISP Environmentp. 395
ASP Environmentp. 395
Enabling Service Providers to Aggregate Profitablyp. 395
Increasing Security and Preventing DoS Attacksp. 396
Solutionsp. 396
Dedicated Bandwidth Management Appliancesp. 396
Integration with Routers and LAN Switchesp. 400
Integration with Web Switchesp. 402
Integration with Firewallp. 404
How Bandwidth Management Works--Case Study of the Nortel Solutionp. 406
Overviewp. 406
Traffic Classification and Controlp. 406
Bandwidth Policiesp. 407
Classification Policiesp. 407
Restricting Bandwidth Usagep. 409
Bandwidth Statistics and Historyp. 409
Packet Coloringp. 410
Configuring Bandwidth Managementp. 411
Standardsp. 414
IETF Diff-Serv Working Groupp. 414
Summaryp. 417
Pros and Consp. 417
Standardization Roadmapp. 418
Future Applicationsp. 418
Review Questionsp. 418
Indexp. 421
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780072190465
ISBN-10: 0072190469
Series: Standards & protocols
Audience: Professional
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 472
Published: 26th February 2002
Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education - Europe
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 23.5 x 19.0  x 2.4
Weight (kg): 0.81