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Content-Addressable Memories : Springer Series in Information Sciences - Teuvo Kohonen

Content-Addressable Memories

Springer Series in Information Sciences

Paperback ISBN: 9783540176251
Number Of Pages: 388

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Due to continual progress in the large-scale integration of semiconductor circuits, parallel computing principles can already be met in low-cost sys- tems: numerous examples exist in image processing, for which special hard- ware is implementable with quite modest resources even by nonprofessional designers. Principles of content addressing, if thoroughly understood, can thereby be applied effectively using standard components. On the other hand, mass storage based on associative principles still exists only in the long- term plans of computer technologists. This situation is somewhat confused by the fact that certain expectations are held for the development of new storage media such as optical memories and "spin glasses" (metal alloys with low-density magnetic impurities). Their technologies, however, may not ripen until after "fifth generation" computers have been built. It seems that software methods for content addressing, especially those based on hash coding principles, are still holding their position firmly, and a few innovations have been developed recently. As they need no special hardware, one might expect that they will spread to a wide circle of users. This monograph is based on an extensive literature survey, most of which was published in the First Edition. I have added Chap. ?, which contains a review of more recent work. This updated book now has references to over 1200 original publications. In the editing of the new material, I received valuable help from Anneli HeimbUrger, M. Sc. , and Mrs. Leila Koivisto.

1 Associative Memory, Content Addressing, and Associative Recall.- 1.1 Introduction.- 1.1.1 Various Motives for the Development of Content-Addressable Memories.- 1.1.2 Definitions and Explanations of Some Basic Concepts.- 1.2 The Two Basic Implementations of Content Addressing.- 1.2.1 Software Implementation: Hash Coding.- 1.2.2 Hardware Implementation: The CAM.- 1.3 Associations.- 1.3.1 Representation and Retrieval of Associated Items.- 1.3.2 Structures of Associations.- 1.4 Associative Recall: Extensions of Concepts.- 1.4.1 The Classical Laws of Association.- 1.4.2 Similarity Measures.- 1.4.3 The Problem of Infinite Memory.- 1.4.4 Distributed Memory and optimal Associative Mappings.- 1.4.5 Sequential Recollections.- 2 Content Addressing by Software.- 2.1 Hash Coding and Formatted Data Structures.- 2.2 Hashing Functions.- 2.3 Handling of Collisions.- 2.3.1 Some Basic Concepts.- 2.3.2 Open Addressing.- 2.3.3 Chaining (Coalesced).- 2.3.4 Chaining Through a Separate overflow Area.- 2.3.5 Rehashing.- 2.3.6 Shortcut Methods for Speedup of Searching.- 2.4 Organizational Features and Formats of Hash Tables.- 2.4.1 Direct and Indirect Addressing.- 2.4.2 Basic Formats of Hash Tables.- 2.4.3 An Example of Special Hash Table Organization.- 2.5 Evaluation of Different Schemes in Hash Coding.- 2.5.1 Average Length of Search with Different Collision Handling Methods.- 2.5.2 Effect of Hashing Function on the Length of Search.- 2.5.3 Special Considerations for the Case in Which the Search Is Unsuccessful.- 2.6 Multi-Key Search.- 2.6.1 Lists and List Structures.- 2.6.2 An Example of Implementation of Multi-Key Search by Hash Index Tables.- 2.6.3 The Use of Compound Keywords in Hashing.- 2.7 Implementation of Proximity Search by Hash Coding.- 2.8 The TRIE Memory.- 2.9 Survey of Literature on Hash Coding and Related Topics.- 3 Logic Principles of Content-Addressable Memories.- 3.1 Present-Day Needs for Hardware CAMs.- 3.2 The Logic of Comparison Operations.- 3.3 The All-Parallel CAM.- 3.3.1 Circuit Logic of a CAM Bit Cell.- 3.3.2 Handling of Responses from the CAM Array.- 3.3.3 The Complete CAM Organization.- 3.3.4 Magnitude Search with the All-Parallel CAM.- 3.4 The Word-Parallel, Bit-Serial CAM.- 3.4.1 Implementation of the CAM by the Linear-Select Memory Principle.- 3.4.2 Skew Addressing.- 3.4.3 Shift Register Implementation.- 3.4.4 The Results Storage.- 3.4.5 Searching on More Complex Specifications.- 3.5 The Word-Serial, Bit-Parallel CAM.- 3.6 Byte-Serial Content-Addressable Search.- 3.6.1 Coding by the Characters.- 3.6.2 Specifications Used in Document Retrieval.- 3.6.3 A Record-Parallel, Byte-Serial CAM for Document Retrieval.- 3.7 Functional Memories.- 3.7.1 The Logic of the Bit Cell in the FM.- 3.7.2 Functional Memory 1.- 3.7.3 Functional Memory 2.- 3.7.4 Read-only Functional Memory.- 3.8 A Formalism for the Description of Micro-Operations in the CAM.- 3.9 Survey of Literature on CAMs.- 4 CAM Hardware.- 4.1 The State-of-the-Art of the Electronic CAM Devices.- 4.2 Circuits for All-Parallel CAMs.- 4.2.1 Active Electronic Circuits for CAM Bit Cells.- 4.2.2 Cryotron-Element CAMs.- 4.2.3 Josephson Junctions and SQUIDs for Memories.- 4.3 Circuits for Bit-Serial and Word-Serial CAMs.- 4.3.1 Semiconductor RAM Modules for the CAM.- 4.3.2 Magnetic Memory Implementations of the CAM.- 4.3.3 Shift Registers for Content-Addressable Memory.- 4.3.4 The Charge-Coupled Device (CCD).- 4.3.5 The Magnetic-Bubble Memory (MBM).- 4.4 Optical Content-Addressable Memories.- 4.4.1 Magneto-Optical Memories.- 4.4.2 Holographic Content-Addressable Memories.- 5 The CAM as a System Part.- 5.1 The CAM in Virtual Memory Systems.- 5.1.1 The Memory Hierarchy.- 5.1.2 The Concept of Virtual Memory and the Cache.- 5.1.3 Memory Mappings for the Cache.- 5.1.4 Replacement Algorithms.- 5.1.5 Updating of Multilevel Memories.- 5.1.6 Automatic Control of the Cache Operations.- 5.1.7 Buffering in a Multiprocessor System.- 5.1.8 Additional Literature on Memory Organizations and Their Evaluation.- 5.2 Utilization of the CAM in Dynamic Memory Allocation.- 5.2.1 Memory Map and Address Conversion.- 5.2.2 Loading of a Program Segment.- 5.3 Content-Addressable Buffer.- 5.4 Programmable Logic.- 5.4.1 RAM Implementation.- 5.4.2 CAM Implementation.- 5.4.3 FM Implementation.- 5.4.4 Other Implementations of Programmable Logic.- 5.4.5 Applications of the CAM in Various Control Operations.- 6 Content-Addressable Processors.- 6.1. Some Trends in Content-Addressable Memory Functions.- 6.2 Distributed-Logic Memories (DLMs).- 6.3 The Augmented Content-Addressable Memory (ACAM).- 6.4 The Association-Storing Processor (ASP).- 6.5 Content-Addressable Processors with High-Level Processing Elements.- 6.5.1 The Basic Array Processor Architecture.- 6.5.2 The Associative Control Switch (ACS) Architecture.- 6.5.3 An Example of Control-Addressable Array Processors: RADCAP.- 6.5.4 An Example of Content-Addressable Ensemble Processors: PEPE.- 6.6 Bit-Slice Content-Addressable Processors.- 6.6.1 The STARAN Computer.- 6.6.2 Orthogonal Computers.- 6.7 An Overview of Parallel Processors.- 6.7.1 Categorizations of Computer Architectures.- 6.7.2 Survey of Additional Literature on Content-Addressable and Parallel Processing.- 7 Review of Research Since 1979.- 7.1 Research on Hash Coding.- 7.1.1 Review Articles.- 7.1.2 Hashing Functions.- 7.1.3 Handling of Collisions.- 7.1.4 Hash Table Organization.- 7.1.5 Linear Hashing.- 7.1.6 Dynamic, Extendible, and External Hashing.- 7.1.7 Multiple-Key and Partial-Match Hashing.- 7.1.8 Hash-Coding Applications.- 7.1.9 Hash-Coding Hardware.- 7.2 CAM Hardware.- 7.2.1 CAM Cells.- 7.2.2 CAM Arrays.- 7.2.3 Dynamic Memories.- 7.2.4 CAM Systems.- 7.3 CAM Applications.- 7.4 Content-Addressable Parallel Processors.- 7.4.1 Architectures for Content-Addressable Processors.- 7.4.2 Data Base Machines.- 7.4.3 Applications of Content-Addressable Processors.- 7.5 Optical Associative Memories.- 7.5.1 General.- 7.5.2 Holographic Content-Addressable Memories.- References.

ISBN: 9783540176251
ISBN-10: 354017625X
Series: Springer Series in Information Sciences
Audience: General
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 388
Publisher: Springer-Verlag Berlin and Heidelberg Gmbh & Co. Kg
Country of Publication: DE
Dimensions (cm): 23.39 x 15.6  x 2.11
Weight (kg): 0.56
Edition Number: 2
Edition Type: Revised