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Connectionism in Context : Human-Centred Systems - Andy Clark

Connectionism in Context

Human-Centred Systems

By: Andy Clark (Editor), Rudi Lutz (Editor)

Paperback

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Connectionism in Context aims to broaden and extend thedebate concerning the significance of connectionist models.The volume collects together a variety of perspectives byexperimental and developmental psychologists, philosophersand active AI researchers. These contributions relate con-nectionist ideas to historical psychlogical debates, e.g.,over behaviourism and associationism, to develop-mental and philosophical issues. The result is a volumewhich addresses both familiar, but central, topics such asthe relation between connectionism and classical AI, andless familiar, but highly challenging topics, such asconnectionism,associationism and behaviourism, the dis-tinction between perception and cognition, the role of en-vironmental structure, and the potential value ofconnec-tionism as a means of "symbol grounding". The nine essayshave been written with an interdisciplinary audience in mindand avoid both technical jargon and heavy mathematics.

1. Introduction.- Architecture and Properties l.- A Copernican Revolution.- Distributed Representations and Context Dependence.- The Nature of Thought.- 2. Action, Connectionism and Enaction: A Developmental Perspective.- Background.- Symbols, Connectionism and Innate Knowledge.- System Scale and the Control of Action.- Development, Emergence and Enaction.- Conclusion.- 3. Connectionism and Why Fodor and Pylyshyn Are Wrong.- The Case Against Connectionism.- Fodor and Pylyshyn's Four Conditions.- Systems that Satisfy these Conditions.- Fodor and Pylyshyn's Argument.- What's Wrong with this Argument.- What's Wrong with Premise (T3)?.- What's Wrong with Premise (T2)?.- What's Wrong with Premise (T1).- What's Wrong with this Defence?.- The Turing Machine Paradigm.- Minds as Semiotic Systems.- Cognitive Architecture.- On Behalf of Neural Networks.- Dispositions and Predispositions.- The Proper Comparison.- 4. Connectionism, Classical Cognitive Science and Experimental Psychology.- Classicism Versus Connectionism.- The Psychological Data.- Memory.- Inference.- Theory.- Memory.- Inference.- Modelling.- Memory.- Inference.- Conclusions.- 5. Connecting Object to Symbol in Modelling Cognition.- Symbol Systems.- The Symbolic Theory of Mind.- The Symbol Grounding Problem.- Neural Nets.- Transducers and Analogue Transformations.- Robotic Capacities: Discrimination and Identification.- Philosophical Objections to Bottom-Up Grounding of Concrete and Abstract Categories.- Categorical Perception and Category-Learning.- Neural Net and CP.- Analogue Constraints on Symbols.- 6 Active Symbols and Internal Models: Towards a Cognitive Connectionism.- Criticisms of Connectionism.- Connectionism Equals Behaviourism.- Are FFPA Models Behaviourist?.- Connectionism Equals Associationism.- The Active Symbol.- Active Symbols and Control Mechanisms.- Symbol Formation and Properties.- Higher-Level Processes.- First-Order Knowledge Structures.- Second-Order Knowledge Structures.- Toward Structure-Sensitive Operations.- Summary and Concluding Remarks.- The Continuum of Cognitive Models.- Logic, Difficulty and Adaptation.- 7. Thinking Persons and Cognitive Science.- Extending Content.- The Credentials of Cognition.- Consciousness and What It Is Like.- Conceptualized Content and the Structure of Thinking.- Inference and Causal Systernaticity.- Reconstructing the Mind.- 8. A Brief History of Connectionism and Its Psychological Implications.- Connectionist Assumptions in Earlier Psychologies.- Spencer's Principles of Psychology (1855/1899).- William James' Principles of Psychology.- Thorndike's Connectionism.- Pavlov's Theory of the Cerebral Cortex.- Watsonian and Skinnerian Behaviourism.- Hullian Stimulus-Response Theory.- Comparisons of Old and New Connectionism.- Neural Plausibility.- Thought and the Thinking Self.- Empiricism.- Practical Implications of Connectionism.- Conclusions.- 9. Connectionism and Artificial Intelligence as Cognitive Models.- Artificial Intelligence.- Level of Explanation.- Processing Style.- Representational Structure.- Connectionism.- Classification of Neural Networks.- Level of Explanation.- Processing Style.- Representational Structure.- Classical AI and Connectionism.- Segregation.- Compilation.- Hybridization.- Subsumption.- 10. The Neural Dynamics of Conversational Coherence.- Previous Research.- Conversation Analysis: Sequencing Rules Approach.- Speech Acts.- Computational Models.- A Neurally Inspired Model of Coherence.- Some Experimental Results.- How Associative Is Conversation?.- Final on the Purpose of Conversation.

ISBN: 9783540197164
ISBN-10: 3540197168
Series: Human-Centred Systems
Audience: General
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 181
Publisher: Springer-Verlag Berlin and Heidelberg Gmbh & Co. Kg
Country of Publication: GB
Dimensions (cm): 24.41 x 16.99  x 1.04
Weight (kg): 0.31