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Confocal Raman Microscopy : Springer Series in Optical Sciences - Thomas Dieing

Confocal Raman Microscopy

Springer Series in Optical Sciences

By: Thomas Dieing (Editor), Olaf Hollricher (Editor), Jan Toporski (Editor)

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Published: 14th January 2011
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Confocal Raman Microscopy is a relatively new technique that allows chemical imaging without specific sample preparation. By integrating a sensitive Raman spectrometer within a state-of-the-art microscope, Raman microscopy with a spatial resolution down to 200nm laterally and 500nm vertically can be achieved using visible light excitation. Recent developments in detector and computer technology as well as optimized instrument design have reduced integration times of Raman spectra by orders of magnitude, so that complete images consisting of tens of thousands of Raman spectra can be acquired in seconds or minutes rather than hours, which used to be standard just one decade ago. The purpose of this book is to provide the reader a comprehensive overview of the rapidly developing field of Confocal Raman Microscopy and its applications.

High-Resolution Optical and Confocal Microscopyp. 1
Introductionp. 1
Introduction to Theoretical Considerations in High-Resolution Microscopyp. 3
Introduction to Confocal Microscopyp. 3
Electromagnetic Scattering in Optical Systemsp. 4
3D-Intensity Distribution in the Focusp. 5
Large Aperture Anglesp. 6
Transition to Small Aperture Anglesp. 9
Theory of Image Formationp. 11
Microscopep. 11
Confocal Microscopep. 12
Confocal Raman Microscopep. 12
Image Formation for Light Scatteringp. 13
Scattering Pointp. 13
Reflection at a Mirrorp. 15
Image Formation for Raman Scatteringp. 16
Raman Emitting Pointp. 16
Raman Emission of a Layerp. 17
Pinhole Sizep. 18
Referencesp. 20
Introduction to the Fundamentals of Raman Spectroscopyp. 21
Introductionp. 21
Classical Picture of Light Scatteringp. 22
Frequency Dependence of Raman Scatteringp. 22
Classical "Selection Rule" and Comparison to Ir Absorptionp. 24
Scattered Raman Intensityp. 25
Shortfalls of the Classical Picturep. 27
Raman Cross-Section Enhancement Mechanismsp. 27
Resonant Raman Scatteringp. 28
Advantages and Applications of Resonance Raman Scatteringp. 31
Surface-Enhanced Raman Scatteringp. 34
Referencesp. 40
Raman Instrumentation for Confocal Raman Microscopyp. 43
Introductionp. 43
The Development of Raman Microscopesp. 44
Confocalityp. 45
Throughput of a Confocal Raman Microscopep. 46
Laser Wavelengthp. 47
Excitation Powerp. 47
Objectivep. 48
Microscope Throughputp. 48
Coupling Between Microscope and Spectrometerp. 49
Spectrometer Throughputp. 49
Gratingsp. 50
Ccd Detectorp. 51
Conclusionp. 60
Referencesp. 60
Software Requirements and Data Analysis in Confocal Raman Microscopyp. 61
Introductionp. 61
Requirements for Data Acquisition Softwarep. 62
Data Acquisitionp. 62
Correlation of Spatial and Spectral Datap. 63
Description of the Data Sets Acquired in Confocal Raman Microscopyp. 65
Pre-processing of Raman Spectrap. 66
Cosmic Ray Removalp. 66
Smoothingp. 68
Background Substraction and Subtraction of Reference Spectrap. 70
Image Generationp. 72
Univariate Image Generationp. 72
Multivariate Image Generationp. 75
Image Masks and Selective Average Calculationp. 81
Combination of Single Spectra with Multi-spectral Data Setsp. 82
Basis Spectrap. 83
Fitting Procedurep. 83
Combination of Various Imagesp. 84
The Law of Numbersp. 85
Materials and Methodsp. 88
Referencesp. 89
Nano-spectroscopy of Individual Carbon Nanotubes and Isolated Graphene Sheetsp. 91
Introductionp. 91
Individual Carbon Nanotubesp. 92
Phononsp. 92
Theoryp. 95
Experimentp. 96
Microscopyp. 98
Thermographyp. 100
Isolated Graphene Sheetsp. 101
Theoryp. 101
Experimentp. 102
Charge Distributionsp. 105
Conclusionp. 107
Referencesp. 108
Raman Spectroscopy and Confocal Raman Imaging in Mineralogy and Petrographyp. 111
Introductionp. 111
Raman Spectroscopy and Imaging as a Mineralogy/Petrography Toolp. 112
Working with Thin Sectionsp. 114
Control of Laser Powerp. 116
"Raman Mineralogy" Using Imaging Raman Techniquesp. 119
Mineral Phase Imagingp. 120
Crystallographic Orientation Imagingp. 122
Phase Composition Imagingp. 123
Examples of "Raman Petrography" Applicationsp. 124
Raman Analysis of Shocked Mineralsp. 124
Contextual Imaging of Carbonaceous Materialsp. 126
Fluid Inclusionsp. 129
Ancient Terrestrial Carbonaceous Materialsp. 130
Raman Mineralogy in Field Geology. Studiesp. 130
Extraterrestrial Explorationp. 132
Conclusionp. 133
Referencesp. 133
Raman Micro-spectral Imaging of Cells and Intracellular Drug Delivery Using Nanocarrier Systemsp. 137
Introductionp. 137
Methodp. 140
Data Acquisitionp. 140
Introduction to Data Processing Methodsp. 140
Experimentalp. 144
Resultsp. 145
Cell Imagingp. 145
Drug Delivery Systemsp. 152
Discussionp. 161
Referencesp. 162
Confocal Raman Microscopy in Pharmaceutical Developmentp. 165
Introductionp. 165
Vibrational Spectroscopy in Pharmaceutical Developmentp. 166
Imaging in Pharmaceutical Developmentp. 169
Chemical Imaging in Pharmaceutical Developmentp. 172
Confocal Raman Microscopy in Pharmaceutical Developmentp. 176
Applications of Confocal Raman Microscopy in Pharmaceutical Developmentp. 179
Practical Considerationsp. 179
Investigation of Solid Dosage Forms by Chemical Imagingp. 185
Conclusionsp. 198
Materials and Methodsp. 198
Referencesp. 199
Characterization of Therapeutic Coatings on Medical Devicesp. 203
Backgroundp. 203
Passive Therapeutic Coatingsp. 205
Coating Thicknessp. 205
Swelling of Hydrophilic Gel Coatingsp. 208
Active Therapeutic Coatingsp. 210
Coating Morphologyp. 210
Drug Mixed with Single Polymer: Morphology and Elutionp. 211
Drug Mixed with Two Polymers: Blending and Layeringp. 216
Drug Mixed with Two Polymers: Exposure to Waterp. 219
Drug Mixed with Biodegradable Polymer: Drug Elution with Polymer Degradationp. 220
Summaryp. 223
Referencesp. 223
Raman Imaging of Plant Cell Wallsp. 225
Introductionp. 225
Plant Cell Wallsp. 226
Micro-Raman Spectroscopy of Plant Fibersp. 227
Plant Cell Wall Imaging by Confocal Raman Microscopyp. 228
Imaging Cellulose Orientation and Lignin Distribution in Wooden Cell Wallsp. 228
Silica and Cell Wall Composition in Horsetailp. 232
Outlookp. 234
Material and Methodsp. 234
Referencesp. 235
Confocal Raman Imaging of Polymeric Materialsp. 237
Introductionp. 237
Raman Imaging of Isotactic Polypropylene (iPP)p. 239
Raman Imaging of Polymer Blendsp. 244
Raman Imaging of Thin Films of the Polymer Blend: Polystyrene (PS)-Ethyl-Hexyl-Acrylate (EHA)p. 245
Raman Imaging of Thin Films of the Polymer Blend Ethyl-Hexyl-Acrylate (EHA)-Styrene-Butadiene Rubber (Sbr)p. 247
Raman Imaging of Thin Films of the Polymer Blend Ps-Eha-Sbrp. 249
Polymer Coatingsp. 251
Acrylic Paintsp. 251
Adhesivesp. 253
Additives in Polymer Matricesp. 253
Summaryp. 257
Referencesp. 257
Stress Analysis by Means of Raman Microscopyp. 259
Introductionp. 259
Theoretical Backgroundp. 260
Measuring in Conventional Back-Scattering Configurationp. 261
Off-Axis Raman Spectroscopyp. 263
Stress Tensor Analysis in Back-Scattering Raman Microscopyp. 266
Case Studiesp. 268
3D Raman Spectroscopy Measurementsp. 268
ZnOp. 271
The Influence of Stress on the Peak Position of Polymersp. 273
Discussionp. 276
Referencesp. 277
Indexp. 279
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9783642125218
ISBN-10: 3642125212
Series: Springer Series in Optical Sciences
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 292
Published: 14th January 2011
Publisher: Springer-Verlag Berlin and Heidelberg Gmbh & Co. Kg
Country of Publication: DE
Dimensions (cm): 23.5 x 15.5  x 1.27
Weight (kg): 0.63