This book explores the relationship between the process of state formation and political identities in the context of Sudan's conflict. It examines conflict and politics of identity in the Sudan. It argues that neither race, nor culture is at the center of the Sudan's tragedy. Instead, it is the racialized postcolonial state that imposed a single vision of nation through the policy of Arabization and Islamization. Idris examines how an ideology of hierarchy was historically constructed and politically institutionalized in the Sudan, acknowledging the centrality of the historical legacy of slavery and colonialism in the crisis of postcolonial citizenship in the Sudan.