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Conceptualizing Religion : Immanent Anthropologists, Transcendent Natives, and Unbounded Categories - Benson Saler

Conceptualizing Religion

Immanent Anthropologists, Transcendent Natives, and Unbounded Categories

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Published: 30th December 1999
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"In this study, the author displays an astonishing knowledge of the field, an outstanding command of the literature and a most remarkable width of scope." * The Journal of Indo-European Studies "...a timely and useful addition to current discussions on the topic." * American Anthropologist "This is the best book on conceptualizing religion that I have come across for many years. All issues related to the definition of religion are dealt with extensively and in depth, without losing sight of the contribution of the author himself." * Bijdragen, tijdschrift voor filosofie en theologie How might we transform a folk category - in this case religion - into a analytical category suitable for cross-cultural research? In this volume, the author addresses that question. He critically explores various approaches to the problem of conceptualizing religion, particularly with respect to certain disciplinary interests of anthropologists. He argues that the concept of family resemblances, as that concept has been refined and extended in prototype theory in the contemporary cognitive sciences, is the most plausible analytical strategy for resolving the central problem of the book. In the solution proposed, religion is conceptualized as an affair of "more or less" rather than a matter of "yes or no," and no sharp line is drawn between religion and non-religion. Benson Saler is Professor of Anthropology at Brandeis University and a former Interim Vice PResident of the Anthropology of Religion Section of the American Anthropological Association. He has carried out ethnographic fieldwork in Guatemala, Colombia, Venezuela, and the United States. his current research is largely dircted to certain aspects of "popular culture" in the United States.

"In this study, the author displays an astonishing knowledge of the field, an outstanding command of the literature and a most remarkable width of scope." - The Journal of Indo-European Studies

..". a timely and useful addition to current discussions on the topic." - American Anthropologist

"This is the best book on conceptualizing religion that I have come across for many years. All issues related to the definition of religion are dealt with extensively and in depth, without losing sight of the contribution of the author himself." - Bijdragen, tijdschrift voor filosofie en theologie

Acknowledgementsp. IX
Illustrationsp. XXI
Torti's Life and Writingsp. 1
The Texts of Torti's 303 Consultation Reportsp. 20
Asthmatic Sicknessp. 20
Habitual vomiting with hysterical convulsionsp. 25
Palpitation of the Heartp. 29
Difficulty Swallowing of Liquids Onlyp. 32
Uterine Sicknessp. 35
Hysterical Convulsionsp. 38
Melancholy and Maniacal Deliriump. 42
Melancholic Sickness in a Childp. 47
Hemorrhoidal Sicknessp. 50
Spasmodic and Convulsive Stretchingp. 55
Hysterical Illnessp. 59
Hypochondriacal Sicknessp. 60
Hypochondriacal Flatusp. 61
Hypochondriacal Cardialgic Sicknessp. 63
Jaundice with Severest Pain in the Region of the Liverp. 69
Hemorrhoidal Sickness with Hypochondriacal Flatusp. 72
Disease of the Nervous Systemp. 78
Paralytic Sicknessp. 79
Sickness of Sluggish Movement in the animal spirits and in the solidsp. 82
Sickness of the Headp. 90
Irregular Menstruationp. 92
Sickness of the head with dimness of visionp. 95
Excessive Sweatsp. 97
Attack of Dizzinessp. 101
Calculous Sickness with Suppression of Urinep. 105
Strabismus with Headache and sometimes with Feverp. 107
Another Reportp. 108
Irregular Menstruationp. 109
Another Reply for the Aforementioned Lady of Parma, Her Serene Highnessp. 111
Difficult Breathingp. 113
Difficult Ejaculation of Semen, or Disorder, with Various Other Symptomsp. 115
A Convulsive Sicknessp. 121
A Spastic Sicknessp. 124
Pain in the Abdomenp. 126
Uterine Hemorrhage and Painsp. 130
Tenderness of the Spleenp. 134
Abdominal Painp. 136
Another Description of the Purgation Administered in the Spring by the Aforementioned General Walsechp. 139
Hypochondriacal Sicknessp. 140
Virulent Gonorrheap. 141
Asthmatic Illnessp. 144
Reply to a Letter in which advice is requested for the aforementioned gentleman Antinori concerning use of a diet, customary in Naples, in which cold food is taken, and likewise iced drinksp. 149
Another reply for the same aforementioned gentleman, Signor Antinorip. 150
Another reply to a letter concerning the same aforementioned gentleman, Signor Antinorip. 152
Continuation of the reply on behalf of a lady tortured by uterine painsp. 153
Another reply concerning the illness of the aforementioned gentleman Antinorip. 153
Another reply to a letter on behalf of the same gentleman Signor Antinorip. 155
Obstinate Feversp. 156
Tremor of Nervesp. 161
Irregular menstruation, and Painp. 164
Accurate report, by a Piacenza physician, of whooping cough in a knight of that cityp. 168
Letter directed to her Serene Highness, the Duchess of Parma Replying to Recommendations Made by Her Serene Highness On behalf of the aforementioned Gentleman; and with regard to other advicep. 171
Another little letter to a friend concerning the suggestion of the aforementioned Gianoli of Parmap. 173
Letter of the Marquis of Nibbiano in which he sends information about the continuation of his symptoms. Epilepsyp. 173
Reply to Letter (Letters No. 106) of the Marquis of Nibbianop. 176
A Purge forp. 177
Reply on the Continuation of the Asthmatic Sickness of the gentleman Signor Antinorip. 178
Chlorosis with Feverp. 180
Another reply on the continuation of the asthmatic illness of the gentleman Signor Antinorip. 184
Hypochondriacal Sicknessp. 186
Reply to a letter which inquires whether it is necessary to draw blood from Monsignor the Bishop of Piacenza, the physicians being in disagreement about thisp. 188
Another letter, conveying apology for not having written the above reply in Latinp. 188
Urinary Sicknessp. 189
Drenching of the Lower Structures and of the Abdomenp. 191
Celtic Diseasep. 195
Suppression of Menstruationp. 199
Reflections on the Symptoms, Causes, Treatment and Regulation of the Serene Lady Duchess, the Widow Dorothy of Parmap. 202
Inflammation in the Bloodp. 209
Disease of the Liver with Jaundicep. 213
Persistent Anorexiap. 218
Cachexiap. 219
Nervous and Hypochondriacal Ailmentsp. 222
Hysterical and Melancholic Sicknessp. 223
Pain in the Cardiap. 226
Leukorrhea, with Pain in the Stomachp. 228
Hysterical Convulsion with continuous metrorrhagiap. 230
Another reply bearing on the aforementioned illness of the Marchioness Spinola--Mantuap. 233
Reply to a letter from the aforementioned Marchioness Spindlap. 235
Diseases of the Chest and Others Restrained by Sweatsp. 238
Another reply concerning the aforementioned illness of the Marquis Andreasip. 240
1.155r Itching of the Limbs During Pregnancy and other Occurrencesp. 242
Icteric Sicknessp. 243
Swelling in an Armp. 245
Sickness of Mesenteric Glandsp. 247
Asthmatic Sicknessp. 249
Further Reportp. 251
Scorbutic Rheumatismp. 254
Palpitation of the Heartp. 256
Epileptic Sicknessp. 259
Vertiginous Sicknessp. 261
Rheumatic Lumbago or Arthritis of the Lumbar Vertebraep. 262
Additional Reply About the Preceding Patientp. 267
Letter to Dr. Corghi for the Same Patient as abovep. 274
Another Letter to Count Bagnip. 274
Herpesp. 275
Crudity of the Humors, with Vomitingp. 277
Another Replyp. 278
Difficulty in Respirationp. 279
Callous Ulcer in the Tonguep. 280
Flow of Blood from the Uterus and Other Symptomsp. 282
Vertiginous Sickness with Swelling of the Legs and Hemorrhoidal Flowsp. 285
Arthritis and Various Sicknesses of Urinep. 290
Convulsive Hypochondriacal Sicknessp. 294
1.194v Extremely Severe Pains in Childbirthp. 298
An Additional Replyp. 300
Tertian Fevers Repeated Again and Againp. 301
Another Reply by F[rancesco] T[orti]p. 303
Disturbances in Pregnancyp. 305
Disease of Urinep. 306
Extremely Obstinate Coughp. 308
Additional Reply by Francesco Tortip. 311
Hypochondriacal Sicknessp. 313
Sickness of the Stomachp. 315
Reply for a gentleman of Mantuap. 316
Persistent Sterilityp. 317
Daily Vomiting and Other Sicknesses of the Stomachp. 318
Cickness Caused by Excessive Corpulencep. 321
Effects of Scarlet Feverp. 325
Pain in the Region of the Left Kidneyp. 331
Sickness of the Stomachp. 333
Hysterical Hypochondriacal Illnessp. 338
Varicose Swellings of the Legsp. 342
Hysterico-Hypochondriacal Sicknessp. 345
Hemorrhage from the Uterus in a Lady aged 50 yearsp. 348
Pain toward the Pectoral Muscle on the Left Sidep. 350
Pain in the Stomachp. 352
Flow from the Headp. 355
Swellings in the Stomach and Legs after Parturitionp. 360
Convulsive Coughp. 362
Lymphatic Fevers with Syphilitic Painsp. 364
Herpes in the Hands and subsequent Swelling of the Legs and Feetp. 367
Sickness Resembling Scurvyp. 370
Gouty Sicknessp. 373
Hypochondriacal Sicknessp. 375
Kidney Diseasep. 378
Arthritis and Various Misfortunesp. 380
Sickness of the Nervous or Semiscorbutic Kindp. 382
Hypochondriaco-Convulsive Asthmap. 385
Hysterical Suffocation: Apparent Asthmatic Sicknessp. 388
Hysterico-Hypochondriacal Sicknessp. 390
Gouty Salts Carried Away Elsewhere and Causing Various Sicknessesp. 391
Diseases of the Skinp. 393
Syphilisp. 396
Painful Sickness in the Uterusp. 398
Itching Efflorescence on the Face and in Other Placesp. 400
Reply to Questions Concerning the Ladyp. 403
Epilepsy in Childhoodp. 404
Retention of Urinep. 405
Epilepsyp. 408
Convulsive Cough with Bloody Sputump. 410
Information about the fevers that burdened the inhabitants of the city of Carpi in the year 1733p. 412
Another Reply, Based on Additional Information Received from Carpip. 417
Another Reply Concerning the Aforementioned Fevers of Carpip. 418
Another Letter in Reply about the Aforementioned Feversp. 419
Dysuriap. 420
Sickness of Nerves in Children More Than Seven Years Oldp. 424
Tumor of the Uterusp. 427
Hysterical Convulsive Sickness after Suppression of Menstruationp. 430
Sickness in the Chest, with Catarrhp. 432
Reply to Father Pellegrini, a Jesuit in Bologna, who had taken here some medicines prescribed therep. 434
For a Gentleman of Cremonap. 436
Asthmatic-Hypochondriacal Sicknessp. 437
Rheumatic Fluxionp. 439
Painful Sickness in the Feet and Legs, Reduction of Vision, and Obstinate Constipation of the Abdomenp. 440
Another Reply Concerning the Aforementioned Illness of Her Royal Majesty of Turinp. 448
Narrative Letter about his own Ailment, sent because he is unable to make a personal visit to the aforementioned Royal Majestyp. 450
Another letter about the same royal subject because of a new troublep. 452
Tenderness in the region of the uterus, with vomitingp. 454
Gouty Flux and Calculous Sickness; First Consultationp. 455
2.18v Second Consultationp. 457
Emaciation of the Flesh, with Complete Weakness and Feverp. 458
Sickness of the Headp. 460
Cachectic Sicknessp. 463
Uterine Sickness, with Wormsp. 465
Abscesses in both Ears, with Vertigop. 467
Spastic Abdominal Viscerap. 468
Asthmatic Sicknessp. 469
Sickness of the Chestp. 470
Sickness of Nervesp. 471
Heaviness in the Stomachp. 472
Attacks of Fever, with Hysterical Sicknessp. 474
Ascites with Obstructions of the Liver other occurrencesp. 477
Another Reply about the Illness of the aforementioned Signor Moccenziop. 482
Tumor in the Chestp. 487
Excerpt from Report about the same Illness of the aforementioned Nunp. 490
Consumption subsequent to a white discharge and other uterine symptomsp. 492
Another Reply about the Same Illness Mentioned Abovep. 496
Letter of reply concerning the same subject discussed abovep. 499
Disease of the Urinep. 501
Letter of reply concerning the aforementioned illnessp. 504
Excerpt of information concerning the outcome of the aforementioned illnessp. 506
Apoplexyp. 507
2.57v Reply Sickness in the Headp. 510
Nervous Sicknessp. 512
Disorder of Serap. 513
Symptomatic Erysipelatous Swellingp. 515
Retention of Urinep. 518
Efflorescence in the Face with disease of the Urinep. 521
Difficult Breathingp. 524
Hemorrhoidal Flowp. 526
Disturbances in Pregnancyp. 531
Stabbing Pains in the Muscle Fibersp. 533
Epidemic Constitution in Forlip. 535
Swelling in one Breast of a Pregnant Womanp. 538
Respiratory Difficulty and Swelling of the Legsp. 538
Convulsive Cough, Tenderness in the Liver, and Feverp. 540
Sickness of the Eyep. 542
Disease of the Gumsp. 543
Chlorosisp. 544
Summary of What Happened after the Aforementioned Treatmentsp. 546
Semiparalysisp. 547
Sickness of the Stomach and Threat of Dropsyp. 549
Little Pustules on the Face and Hands of a Boyp. 551
Urinary Sicknessp. 554
Scorbutic Sicknessp. 556
2.93v Asthmatic Sicknessp. 559
Daily Fever With Obstruction of the Abdomenp. 561
Disease of the Liverp. 564
Irregular Action of the Heartp. 566
Impaired Digestionp. 567
Asthmatic Sicknessp. 571
Abdominal Obstruction with Periodic Fevers of Various Kindsp. 573
Severe Pain in the Occiput and Tenderness in the Right Hypochondriump. 578
Scorbutic Sicknessp. 580
2.110v Difficult Urinationp. 582
Convulsive Asthmap. 584
Urinary Diseasep. 588
Fluxion from the Headp. 590
2.121r Migratory Arthritisp. 596
Bloody Sputump. 599
Varices in the legs, and headachep. 603
Effects of Impure Milk on a nursing childp. 605
Consequences of Scarlet Feverp. 609
Obstruction of the Livep. 614
Arterial Pulsationp. 617
Cancerous Swellingp. 620
Loss of Vision caused by Powder from a Musket Discharged Unexpectedlyp. 624
Epileptic Convulsionsp. 629
Constipation of the Bodyp. 631
Hypochondriacal Sicknessp. 636
Various Troubles Subsequent to a Pregnancyp. 640
Diabetes for Fifteen Years with Symptoms of Vertigo, and Other Troubles in the Stomachp. 644
Another Consultation On the Same Subjectp. 647
Opinion about signor Vitali's System and about the Medicines Suggestedp. 651
Epileptic Attackp. 657
Suppression of Menstruationp. 662
2.170v Various Annoyances After Cessation of Hemorrhoidsp. 663
Special Rheumatism Recurring in the Neckp. 667
Headache and Nasal Polypp. 669
Chronic Feverp. 673
Irregular Fever with Diarrhea and Flow of Uterine Bloodp. 677
Chlorosisp. 680
Swellings in the Glands of the Neckp. 682
Threat of Stagnation in the Headp. 684
Palpitation of the heartp. 685
Convulsionsp. 688
Tremor in the Uterusp. 692
2.194r Disease of the Uterus subsequent to a Parturitionp. 694
Migratory Pains Subsequent to Scabies with Syphilisp. 697
Relapse of Tertian Feverp. 703
Hysterical Ailmentsp. 706
Asthmatic Sicknessp. 710
Reply to Another Reply about the Same Patientp. 712
Intermittent Fever with Suspicion of Tumor in the Abdomenp. 714
Further Reportp. 717
Edematous Swelling at the Malleoli with Hypochondriacal Sickness and Diarrheap. 720
Asthmatic Sicknessp. 722
Fever for Many Months with Hypochondriacal Sicknessesp. 726
Another Reportp. 733
Ulcerated Scirrhusp. 737
Hypochondriacal Sicknessp. 739
Epilepsyp. 741
Sickness of the Stomachp. 743
Aphoniap. 745
Constipation with Painful Discharge of Fecesp. 746
Beginnings of Scurvyp. 748
Flow of Blood from the Uterus with Obstruction of Abdominal Organsp. 749
Abundance of Salts in the Blood and Noteworthy Inclination to a Scorbutic Illnessp. 751
Various Symptoms Leading to Tabesp. 753
Carcinomatous Tumorp. 756
Swellings of the Limbs and profusion of Urinep. 757
Irregular Fevers for Many Yearsp. 757
Tumor Inclining to Carcinomap. 761
Hemorrhoidal Painp. 764
Various Symptoms Coming from Obstructions of the Liver and Uterusp. 766
Hypochondriacal Sickness Mixed with Colic and Hystericalp. 768
Threat of Epilepsy or Apoplexyp. 772
Hemorrhage from the urinary Passagesp. 775
Preventive Treatment of Pains in the Abdomenp. 777
Obstruction of the Mesenteric Glandsp. 778
Hiccupsp. 782
Epileptic Attacksp. 784
Lymphatic Obstructions in Muscular and Glandular Structuresp. 786
Hypochondriacal Sicknessp. 788
Nephritisp. 790
Vomiting of Bloodp. 793
Hysterical Epileptic Sicknessp. 795
Abundant Sputum and Many Other Complaintsp. 797
Irregular Fever with Obstructions in the Abdomen and Threat to the Chestp. 799
Renal Disease and various other Sicknessesp. 803
Various Abdominal Troubles Preceded by a Colicp. 808
Diabetesp. 811
Torti's 26 Additional Consultation Reports
Convulsive Asthmap. 814
3.3v Excessive Uterine Dischargep. 817
Hypochondriacal Sicknessp. 819
Ease of Abortionp. 823
Obstructions, with Fear of Ascitesp. 825
Nocturnal Pollutionp. 828
3.11v Interruptions of the Pulse and Annoying Titillations at the Sternump. 829
Epilepsyp. 834
False Diabetesp. 836
Weakness of the nerves with tumor of the stomachp. 839
Hypochondriaco-hysterical sickness with beginning of scurvyp. 841
Irregular Fevers for Many Yearsp. 845
Lithiasisp. 850
Symptoms of Impending Phthisisp. 857
Tumor of the Bladder Arising in a Nun after Hysterical Attacks and Other Ailmentsp. 861
3.35v A Hysterico-Hypochondriacal Sicknessp. 864
Symptoms of Incipient Consumptionp. 870
Pains in the Stomach with Distention of the Hypochondria and Other Symptomsp. 873
Varicose Swellings of the Legs with Frequently Recurrent Ulcerp. 876
Epilepsyp. 880
Swellings in the Mesenterix Glands Specially Observedp. 885
Familial Cough, Distressing by Day and by Nightp. 889
Hypochondriacal Sickness Accompanied by Fearful Symptomsp. 890
Another Report about the Same Subjectp. 895
Chronic Tertian Fever Repeatedly Receding and Returning, with Eruption of Scorbutic Spotsp. 698
Hysterical Sickness Threatening Epilepsyp. 904
Torti's First Letter to Lodovico Antonio Muratorip. 908
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9781571812193
ISBN-10: 1571812199
Series: Berghahn Ser.
Audience: General
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 312
Published: 30th December 1999
Publisher: BERGHAHN BOOKS INC
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 22.91 x 15.19  x 1.65
Weight (kg): 0.42
Edition Type: New edition