The distinction between loose, informal collaboration in private and single authorship or formal co-authorship in public has been crumbling for some years. The growth of interdisciplinary studies, international research projects, and distributed work groups within large companies, has exerted political and organizational pressure on writers to be seen to be collaborating. These writing groups often consist of people who rarely meet face-to-face, yet they are expected to collaborate closely, and to tight schedules. However, far more widespread than acknowledged co-authorship, is the practice of loose, informal collaboration: the sharing of ideas and opinions, supportive but critical reading of drafts, and emotional support. Behind the imprint of a single author there lies a complex web of friends, colleagues and unacknowledged influences. Computers seem merely to extend the traditional means of collaboration: electronic mail substitutes for letter writing, computer conferencing substitutes for meetings, shared databases stand in for filing systems and libraries. In fact, each of these systems offers new ways of working and blurs the boundary between informal and formal collaboration. Not until recently have software designers proposed that the best systems to support collaboration are toolkits which enable groups to build software specific to their needs. Computer Supported Collaborative Writing arose from a one-day meeting which provided the first major opportunity for those working in the area of computers and collaborative writing to meet, present their work, and exchange ideas. The aim of the meeting was to bring together people with differing interest - design of software, studies of collaborating writers, CSCW for technical authoring, models of the collaborative writing process - to explore the research problems and offer practical solutions. The chapters of this book are fuller accounts of the work presented during the meeting. Computer Supported Collaborative Writing offers in-depth studies of formal and informal collaboration and proposes preliminary designs for computer tools. It will provide invaluable reading for researchers and students, software designers, and writers.
1 Introduction.- 1.1 The Collaborative Tradition.- 1.2 New Ways of Working Together.- 1.3 Grand Plans or Small Tools.- 2 Research Issues in the Study of Computer Supported Collaborative Writing.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 Background.- 2.3 Writing and Group Working.- 2.3.1 Single-Author Writing.- 2.3.2 Small-Group Working.- 2.3.3 Collaborative Writing.- 2.4 Research Issues.- 2.5 Task Issues.- 2.5.1 Strategies for Partitioning and Coordination.- 2.5.2 Interleaving Tasks.- 2.6 Group Issues.- 2.6.1 Substitutability and Interdependence Between Group Members.- 2.6.2 Roles.- 2.6.3 Management of Conflict.- 2.6.4 Sub-Groups.- 2.7 Communication Issues.- 2.7.1 Identifying the Purpose of a Communicated Representation.- 2.7.2 Communication in Context.- 2.7.3 Deindividuation and Media Effects.- 2.7.4 Structured Communication.- 2.8 External Representation Issues.- 2.8.1 What To Represent?.- 2.8.2 Constraints.- 2.8.3 Communication of Representations.- 2.8.4 Effects of Media on Representations.- 2.8.5 Version Management.- 2.9 Conclusion.- 3 Social Writing: Premises and Practices in Computerized Contexts.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Background.- 3.2.1 Perspectives.- 3.2.2 Technology.- 3.3 Case Studies.- 3.3.1 Case Study 1: A Specification.- 3.3.2 Case Study 2: A Document to Support Budget Allocation Decisions.- 3.4 Conclusions.- 4 Computer Networking for Development of Distance Education Courses.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Issues in Course Team Collaboration.- 4.2.1 Models of Course Development.- 4.2.2 Course Team Work: An Instrumental Perspective..- 4.2.3 Course Team Work: What it's Really Like.- 4.3 Technology Support for Course Team Work.- 4.3.1 Networked Groupware.- 4.3.2 Three Success Stories.- 4.3.3 Factors Affecting Successful Implementation.- 4.4 Conclusion.- 5 How Collaborative is Collaborative Writing? An Analysis of the Production of Two Technical Reports.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.2 Background and Method.- 5.3 Document 1: The Consultancy Report.- 5.3.1 Authors.- 5.3.2 Document and Facilities.- 5.3.3 Design and Procedure.- 5.3.4 Results for Document 1.- 5.4 Document 2: The Project Document.- 5.4.1 Authors.- 5.4.2 Document and Facilities.- 5.4.3 Design and Procedure.- 5.4.4 Results for Document 2.- 5.5 General Discussion.- 5.6 Conclusion.- 6 A Survey of Experiences of Collaborative Writing.- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.2 Method.- 6.3 Results.- 6.3.1 Document.- 6.3.2 Organization of Work.- 6.3.3 Group.- 6.3.4 Orientation.- 6.4 Discussion.- 6.4.1 Results.- 6.4.2 Coverage.- 7 Multimedia Conferencing as a Tool for Collaborative Writing: A Case Study.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.1.1 Collaborative Writing.- 7.1.2 Multimedia Conferencing.- 7.1.3 Collaborative Writing with Multimedia Conferencing Support.- 7.1.4 Case Study.- 7.2 Supporting Mechanism.- 7.2.1 CAR Multimedia Conferencing System.- 7.2.2 Electronic Mail.- 7.2.3 Shared Filestore.- 7.2.4 Consistency and Concurrency Control.- 7.3 Document Evolution.- 7.3.1 Generating Ideas.- 7.3.2 Managing the Development.- 7.3.3 Review and Commenting.- 7.3.4 Integration.- 7.3.5 Decision Making and Conflict Resolution.- 7.4 Assessment and Evaluation.- 7.4.1 Using Synchronous and Asynchronous Modes of Communication.- 7.4.2 SCCS.- 7.4.3 Sharing Applications.- 7.5 Conclusions.- 8 Reviewing Designs for a Synchronous-Asynchronous Group Editing Environment.- 8.1 Introduction.- 8.2 Cooperative Work.- 8.2.1 Direct Communication.- 8.2.2 Shared Artefacts.- 8.2.3 Broad-Based Requirements.- 8.3 Issues in Computer Support for Direct Communication.- 8.3.1 Some Ideas for Conversation Space Design.- 8.4 Issues in Shared Editor Design.- 8.4.1 Some Ideas for Shared Editor Design.- 8.5 Design Ideas for Integrating Conversation Spaces and Shared Editor.- 8.5.1 Establishing Referential Identity.- 8.5.2 Providing a "Global" Conversation Space.- 8.5.3 Playback Facilities.- 8.6 Discussion.- 9 A Case Study in Task Analysis for the Design of a Collaborative Document Production System.- 9.1 Introduction.- 9.2 Context of the Design.- 9.2.1 IBC and End-User Service Integration.- 9.2.2 Reasons for Undertaking the Design.- 9.2.3 The Selection of the Application.- 9.3 The Task Analysis Concepts.- 9.4 A Task Analysis of Multi-Author Multimedia Document Production.- 9.4.1 Task Observations.- 9.4.2 The Task Analysis.- 9.4.3 A Specific Instantiation of the Scenario.- 9.5 Discussion.- 9.5.1 The Final Design.- 9.5.2 Concluding Comments Concerning the Task Analysis.- 10 MILO: A Computer-Based Tool for (Co-)Authoring Structured Documents.- 10.1 Introduction.- 10.2 Designing Systems for Use Now.- 10.3 Introducing MILO.- 10.3.1 Related Systems.- 10.3.2 Notes.- 10.3.3 Creating Documents.- 10.3.4 Amending MILO Documents.- 10.3.5 Collaboration.- 10.3.6 Communicating via MILO.- 10.3.7 Viewing MILO Documents.- 10.4 Observations from Use of MILO.- 10.5 Future Work.- 10.6 Implementation.- 10.7 Summary.- References.- Name Index.