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Computer Simulation of Aerial Target Radar Scattering, Recognition, Detection and Tracking : Radar Library - Yakov Davidovich Shirman

Computer Simulation of Aerial Target Radar Scattering, Recognition, Detection and Tracking

Radar Library

Hardcover

Published: 31st January 2002
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This text provides the reader with the knowledge necessary to perform effective computer simulation of scattering for the real targets and conditions of radio wave propagation. By replacing field tests with the computer simulation methods presented in this resource, time and money is saved in the early stages of research and development. Supplemented with 283 equations and 121 illustrations, the book provides practical guidance in: estimating the effect of various signatures of new radar with target recognition; evaluating and comparing the effectiveness and complexity of recognition algorithms before they are actually introduced into radar; formulating requirements to radar subsystems and evaluating their tolerances; and predicting future radar performance.

Prefacep. xv
Referencesp. xvii
Foundations of Scattering Simulation on Centimeter and Decimeter Wavesp. 1
Target Scatteringp. 1
Scattering Phenomenon and Its Main Radar Characteristicsp. 2
Doppler Transform for Signals of Arbitrary Bandwidth-Duration Productp. 6
Analog Methods of Scattering Simulationp. 8
Computer Methods of Scattering Simulationp. 9
Simplest Component and Other Methods of Target Surface Description and Calculation of Scatteringp. 9
Coordinate Systems and Coordinate Transforms Neglecting Earth's Curvaturep. 10
Coordinate Systems and Coordinate Transforms Accounting for Earth's Curvaturep. 14
Peculiarities of the Simplest Component Method Employmentp. 16
General Equations of Scattering for the Far-Field Zone and Arbitrary Signal Bandwidth-Duration Productp. 18
Use of the Simplest Components' Initial Datap. 20
Application Limits of the Simplest Component Simulation Methodp. 36
Peculiarities of the Target Motion Simulationp. 37
Deterministic Target Motion Description in Accounting for Earth's Curvaturep. 37
Statistical Properties of Atmosphere and Dynamics of Target-Atmosphere Interactionp. 39
Peculiarities of Simulation of Fast Rotating Elementsp. 42
Essence of Rotational Modulation of Scattered Signalsp. 42
Simulation of JEM Neglecting Shadowing Effectsp. 48
JEM Simulation, Taking into Account the Shadowing Effect and Related Topicsp. 52
Simulation of PRMp. 53
Comparison of Different Approximations of the Blades in JEM and PRM Simulationp. 55
Radar Quality Indices to Be Simulatedp. 56
Quality Indices of Recognitionp. 56
Quality Indices of Detection and Trackingp. 60
Choice of Quality Indicesp. 60
Referencesp. 60
Review and Simulation of Recognition Features (Signatures) for Wideband Illuminationp. 63
Definitions and Simulated Signatures for Wideband Signalp. 63
Simulation of Target Range Profiles and RCSs for Wideband Chirp Illuminationp. 64
Simulation Methods for the Chirp Illuminationp. 64
Variants of Signatures on the Basis of Range Profilesp. 66
Simulation of the Target RPsp. 69
Simulation of the Target RCS for Wideband Illuminationp. 74
Comparison of Simulated and Experimental Datap. 75
Range-Polarization and Range-Frequency Signatures Simulation for the Chirp Illuminationp. 80
Range-Polarization Signatures and Their Simulationp. 80
Range-Frequency Signatures and Their Simulationp. 85
Target Range Profiles for Wideband SF Illuminationp. 87
Ambiguity Functions of SF Signals with Moderate Bandwidth-Duration Productsp. 88
Ambiguity Functions of Separated SF Signal with Very Large Bandwidth-Duration Productp. 91
Matched Processing of Separated SF Signal with Very Large Bandwidth-Duration Productp. 92
Simulated and Experimental RPs for Separated SF Illuminationp. 95
Target's 2D Imagesp. 100
Models of Backscattered Signal and Processing Variants for ISARp. 100
ISAR Processing on the Basis of Reference Target Elementsp. 101
ISAR Processing on the Basis of the WV Transformp. 103
Examples of 2D Image Simulationp. 105
Referencesp. 109
Review and Simulation of Recognition Features (Signatures) for Narrowband Illuminationp. 111
Signal Signatures Used in Narrowband Illuminationp. 111
RCS and Other Parameters of PSMp. 112
RCS in Narrowband Illumination and Its Simulationp. 112
Other Parameters of the Polarization Scattering Matrix and Their Simulationp. 114
Rotational Modulation Spectrap. 117
Rotational Modulation Spectra of Various Targetsp. 118
Rotational Modulation Spectra for Various Wavelengthsp. 119
Rotational Modulation Spectra for Various Aspects of a Targetp. 119
Rotational Modulation Spectra for Various PRFs and Coherent Integration Timesp. 121
Comparison of Simulated Spectra with Experimental Onesp. 123
Correlation Factors of Fluctuations Via Frequency Diversityp. 124
Referencesp. 125
Review and Simulation of Recognition Algorithms' Operationp. 127
Bayesian Recognition Algorithms and Their Simulationp. 127
Basic Bayesian Algorithms of Recognition for the Quasi-simple Cost Matrixp. 128
Additive Bayesian Recognition Algorithmsp. 130
Components of Additive Bayesian Recognition Algorithms Related to the Target Trajectory and RCSp. 132
Component of Additive Bayesian Recognition Algorithms Related to Correlation Processing of Range Profilesp. 136
Components of Additive Bayesian Recognition Algorithms Related to Correlation Processing of the RMS and Other Signaturesp. 139
Use of cpdf Instead of Sets of RPs, RMSs, or Other Signaturesp. 140
Simulation of Target Class Recognition Using the Simplest Standard RPs and Other Signaturesp. 142
Simulation of Target Type and Class Recognition Using Individualized Standard RPs and cpdf of RPsp. 147
Simulation of Target Type and Class Recognition Using Rotational Modulation of a Narrowband Signalp. 150
Evaluation of Information Measures for Various Recognition Signatures and Their Combinationsp. 152
Nonparametric Recognition Algorithmsp. 154
Recognition Algorithms of Distance Evaluationp. 154
Recognition Voting Algorithmsp. 156
Simulation of Nonparametric Recognition Algorithmsp. 157
Recognition Algorithms Based on the Precursory Data Transformp. 159
Wavelet Transform and Waveletsp. 160
Discrete Wavelet Transform and Its Use in Recognitionp. 161
Simulation of Wavelet Transforms and Evaluation of Their Applicability in Recognitionp. 162
Neural Recognition Algorithmsp. 164
Structures and Optimization Criterion for ANNsp. 165
Gradient Algorithms for Training the FANNp. 169
Simulation of Target Class Recognition Using Neural Algorithm with Gradient Trainingp. 171
Simulation of Target Type Recognition Using Neural Algorithm with Gradient Trainingp. 174
Some Conclusions from Simulation of Neural Algorithms with Gradient Trainingp. 176
Perspectives of Evolutionary (Genetic) Trainingp. 177
Referencesp. 177
Peculiarity of Backscattering Simulation and Recognition for Low-Altitude Targetsp. 181
Ground Clutter Simulationp. 181
Basic Parameters of Empirical Simulationp. 182
Calculation of the Clutter Complex Amplitudep. 184
Use of Digital Terrain Maps in Simulationp. 186
Simulation of Distortions of Signal Amplitude and Structurep. 192
Principles of Simulation of Wave Propagation Above Underlying Surfacep. 192
Approximate Solution of the Scattering Problem at the Earth-Atmosphere Interfacep. 194
Variants of Approximate Solutions of the Scattering Problemp. 195
Main Factors Contributing to the Wave Propagation Above Underlying Surfacep. 195
The Influence of Surface Reflections on the Amplitude and Structure of Radar Signalsp. 199
Problem of the Wideband Target Recognition Under Conditions of Signal Distortionsp. 202
Target Class Recognition for the RP Distortions by MTI Onlyp. 206
Target Type and Class Recognition for the RP Distortions by Underlying Surface Onlyp. 209
Referencesp. 213
Review and Simulation of Signal Detection and Operation of Simplest Algorithms of Target Trackingp. 215
Target RCS Fluctuations and Signal Detection with Narrowband Illuminationp. 215
Background, Details, and Statement of the Problemp. 216
Variants of Simulation of Signal Detection on the Noise Backgroundp. 218
The Simulated RCS pdf and Comparison with Its A Priori pdfp. 219
Coordinate and Doppler Glint in the Narrowband Illuminationp. 220
The Extended Target Concept and Basic Equations of Target Glintp. 221
Examples of the Theoretical Analysis of Glint for Two-Element Target Modelp. 225
Possible Simplification of Angular Glint Simulation for Real Targets and Optimal Radarp. 230
Simulation Examples for Real Targets and Radarp. 231
Some Aspects of the Wideband Signal Use in Detection and Trackingp. 232
Simulation of Target Detection with Wideband Signalsp. 234
Simulation of Target Range Glint in a Single Wideband Measurementp. 236
Simulation of Target Range Glint in Wideband Trackingp. 237
Referencesp. 239
Some Expansions of the Scattering Simulationp. 241
Scattering Effects for Stationary (Monochromatic) Illumination of Targetsp. 242
Expressions of Scattered Field for Targets with Perfectly Conducting Surfacesp. 243
Expressions of Scattered Field for Targets with Imperfectly Conducting Surfacesp. 244
The Plane Waves in Parallel Uniform Isotropic Infinite Layersp. 245
The Scattered Fields of Huygens Elementary Radiators in Approximation of Physical Opticsp. 250
The Facet Method of Calculating the Surface Integral and "Cubature" Formulasp. 251
Example of RCS Calculation of Targets Uncovered and Covered with RAM for Small Bistatic Anglesp. 254
Evaluation of RCS of Opaque Objects for Bistatic Angles Approaching 180[degree]p. 257
Principles of Calculation of RCS for SharpCornered Objects Uncovered and Covered with RAMp. 258
Some Calculating Methods for Nonstationary Illumination of Targetsp. 267
Concept of High Frequency Responses of Targetsp. 267
Calculating Bistatic Responses of Targets with Perfectly Conducting Surfaces using the Physical Optics Approachp. 268
Example of Calculating the HFUSR of Ellipsoids with Perfectly Conducting Surfacesp. 271
Example of Calculating the Transient Response of an Aircraft Model with Conducting Surface for a Wideband Signalp. 275
Referencesp. 277
List of Acronymsp. 279
About the Authorsp. 281
Indexp. 283
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9781580531726
ISBN-10: 1580531725
Series: Radar Library
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 264
Published: 31st January 2002
Publisher: Artech House Publishers
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 23.0 x 15.9  x 2.52
Weight (kg): 0.62