examples are presented. These chapters are intended to introduce the reader to the programs. The program structure and models used will be described only briefly. Since these programs are in the public domain (with the exception of the parasitic simulation programs), the reader is referred to the manuals for more details. In this second edition, the process program SUPREM III has been added to Chapter 2. The device simulation program PISCES has replaced the program SIFCOD in Chapter 3. A three-dimensional parasitics simulator FCAP3 has been added to Chapter 4. It is clear that these programs or other programs with similar capabilities will be indispensible for VLSI/ULSI device developments. Part B of the book presents case studies, where the application of simu- lation tools to solve VLSI device design problems is described in detail. The physics of the problems are illustrated with the aid of numerical simulations. Solutions to these problems are presented. Issues in state-of-the-art device development such as drain-induced barrier lowering, trench isolation, hot elec- tron effects, device scaling and interconnect parasitics are discussed.
In this second edition, two new chapters are added. Chapter 6 presents the methodol- ogy and significance of benchmarking simulation programs, in this case the SUPREM III program. Chapter 13 describes a systematic approach to investi- gate the sensitivity of device characteristics to process variations, as well as the trade-otIs between different device designs.
Overview.- A : Numerical Simulation Systems.- 1. Numerical Simulation Systems.- 1.1 History of Numerical Simulation Systems.- 1.2 Implementation of a Numerical Simulation System.- 2. Process Simulation.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 SUPREM: 1-D Process Simulator.- 2.3 SUPRA : 2-D Process Simulator.- 2.4 SOAP : 2-D Oxidation Simulator.- 3. Device Simulation.- 3.1 GEMINI : 2-D Poisson Solver.- 3.2 CADDET : 2-D 1-Carrier Device Simulator.- 3.3 PISCES-II : General-Shape 2-D 2-Carrier Device Simulator.- 4. Parasitic Elements Simulation.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 SCAP2 : Two-Dimensional Poisson Equation Solver.- 4.3 FCAP3 : Three-Dimensional Poisson Equation Solver.- B : Applications and Case Studies.- 5. Methodology in Computer-Aided Design for Process and Device Development.- 5.1 Methodologies in Device Simulations.- 5.2 Outline of the case studies.- 6. SUPREM III Application.- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.2 Boron Implant Profiles.- 6.3 Thin Oxide Growth.- 6.4 Oxygen Enhanced Diffusion of Boron.- 6.5 Shallow Junctions.- 7. Simulation Techniques for Advanced Device Development.- 7.1 Device Physics for Process Development.- 7.2 CAD Tools for Simulation of Device Parameters.- 7.3 Methods of Generating Basic Device Parameters.- 7.4 Relationship between Device Characteristics and Process Parameters.- 8. Drain-Induced Barrier Lowering in Short Channel Transistors.- 9. A Study of LDD Device Structure Using 2-D Simulations.- 9.1 High Electric Field Problem in Submicron MOS Devices.- 9.2 LDD Device Study.- 9.3 Summary.- 10. The Surface Inversion Problem in Trench Isolated CMOS.- 10.1 Introduction to Trench Isolation in CMOS.- 10.2 Simulation Techniques.- 10.3 Analysis of the Inversion Problem.- 10.4 Summary of Simulation Results.- 10.5 Experimental Results.- 10.6 Summary.- 11. Development of Isolation Structures for Applications in VLSI.- 11.1 Introduction to Isolation Structures.- 11.2 Local Oxidation of Silicon (LOCOS).- 11.3 Modified LOCOS.- 11.4 Side Wall Masked Isolation (SWAMI).- 11.5 Summary.- 12. Transistor Design for Submicron CMOS Technology.- 12.1 Introduction to Submicron CMOS Technology.- 12.2 Development of the Submicron P-Channel MOSFET Using Simulations.- 12.3 N-Channel Transistor Simulations.- 12.4 Summary.- 13. A Systematic Study of Transistor Design Trade-offs.- 13.1 Introduction.- 13.2 P-Channel MOSFET with N- Pockets.- 13.3 The Sensitivity Matrix.- 13.4 Conclusions.- 14. MOSFET Scaling by CADDET.- 14.1 Introduction.- 14.2 Scaling of an Enhancement Mode MOSFET.- 14.3 Scaling of a Depletion Mode MOSFET.- 14.4 Conclusions.- 15. Examples of Parasitic Elements Simulation.- 15.1 Introduction.- 15.2 Two-Dimensional Parasitic Components Extraction.- 15.3 Three-Dimensional Parasitic Components Extraction.- Source Information of 2-D Programs.- Table of Symbols.- About the Authors.
Series: KLUWER INTERNATIONAL SERIES IN ENGINEERING AND COMPUTER SCIENCE
Number Of Pages: 380
Published: 31st October 1988
Publisher: Kluwer Academic Publishers
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 23.5 x 15.5
Weight (kg): 1.62
Edition Number: 2
Edition Type: Revised