The UN Water Decade has been the catalyst for much research and development in water-related fields, and one result of the Decade has been improved dissemination of the water technologies being developed. Community Water Development presents some of the best material from leading researchers and practitioners in rural water supply in developing countries. The book sets out the original concepts and field experience for the development of appropriate technologies for water supply, and illustrates the changes in thinking which have taken place over the Decade. The various sections, originally published over seven years as articles in Waterlines and Appropriate Technology magazines, cover sources of supply, pumping methods, transport and storage as well as education and training, and questions of planning and management. People remain at the heart of every contributor's concerns, and overall the sixty articles will provide and invaluable tool for anyone concerned with community-sensitive approaches to water-supply problems, whether they are teachers, students or engineers.
A note on currencies ix Acronyms x Preface xi Technology for the People 1 Appropriate technology for water 1 PETER STERN People and the Decade: technology and community 6 JOHN PICKFORD So much to learn 12 JIM HOWARD Introducing appropriate technology step by step 14 SIMON J. BATCHELOR Why TOOL changed to small-scale projects 19 GERT VAN DER BIJL and MARK HOFSTRA 2. Shallow Wells 23 Where shall we- dig the well? 23 JOHN ALLSEBROOK Hand-dug water wells lined with reinforced concrete 29 SIMON WATT and BILL WOOD Shallow wells for low-cost water supply in Tanzania 33 ROBERT TRIETSCH Wells for Mali 39 MARC RAEYMAEKERS Sahel case study: the Gambia 42 BOB MANI and DERRICK KNIGHT 3. Tube-wells 47 Tube-wells and their construction 47 C. K. STAPLETON Ground-water development using jetted boreholes 57 RICHARD CARTER Tackling water-supply problems in Uganda with REDR 62 PETER SHAW and ALAN HAYES Talking to the people-a multi-disciplinary approach to drilling boreholes in Senegal 65 HILARY SUNMAN vi COMMUNITY WATER DEVELOPMENT 4. Rain-water Harvesting 72 Rain-water harvesting 73 PETER STERN Farming with runoff: a weapon against drought? 77 ARNOLD PACEY and ADRIAN CULLIS Water harvesting in India 81 DEREK RAY Social dimensions of harvesting rain-water in Turkana 83 PAULA PARK Rain-water catchment systems in Botswana 86 JOHN GOULD 5. Water Conservation 94 Water from rocks 94 ERIK NISSEN-PETERSEN Water from sand 98 ERIK NISSEN-PETERSEN Assisting ground-water recharge by gully-plugging 102 T. S. RANDHAWA Simple weirs for diverting water 107 TIM STEPHENS The design and construction of small earth dams 112 JOHN FOWLER 6. Pumping Alternatives 121 Water for rural communities: the choice between pumping methods 122 ITDG WATER PANEL The chain and washer pump 132 SIMON WATT The hydraulic ram 138 SIMON WATT Windpumps bring water to the Turkana Desert 144 VIVIEN ABBOTT Solar pumps-a ray of hope in Somalia 146 FROM REPORTS BY GARY COCKETT AND ROBERT FRASER 7. Handpump Testing and Development 150 The Consumers' Association's handpump testing programme 151 KEN MILLS World Bank handpumps testing programme 156 SAUL ARLOSOROFF The Blair Research Laboratory's contributions to the Water Decade 159 PETER MORGAN AND HARRY McPHERSON CONTENTS vii Malaysian villagers comment on simple plastic handpumps 163 GOH SING YAU AND LOW KWAI SIM 8. Handpump Maintenance 169 The India Mark II handpump and its three-tier maintenance system 170 GEORGE BALDWIN A one-tier system: the Tilonia approach to handpump maintenance 179 SAMJIT ROY Working towards village-based handpump maintenance- UNICEF's approach in India 185 KENNETH GRAY Handpumps in rural Morocco 188 WILLIAM LYNCH 9. Water Transport and Storage 194 Doing the donkey work 194 VAL CURTIS Water-women's work 199 BARBARA ROGERS Bamboo water pipes and wooden tanks 201 T. N. LIPANGILE Ferrocement tanks in Papua New Guinea 205 STEVE LAYTON Prefabricated fibre-reinforced cement irrigation channels 209 FRANCIS HILLMAN 10. Education and Training 216 Ways of involving women in water projects 217 CAROLYN HANNAN-ANDERSON Training through work experience 223 KEVIN TAYLER Planning intensive training courses 227 FRED ROSENSWE1G Malawi: Demonstration for self-help 232 GUS LIEBENOW 11. Planning and Management 238 Guide-lines on planning and management of rural water supplies in developing countries 239 ITDG WATER PANEL Who will look after the village water supply? 246 w. E. WOOD Managing seasonal man-made water sources: lessons from Botswana 253 LOUISE FORTMANN viii COMMUNITY WATER DEVELOPMENT Towards community-managed drinking-water schemes in Nepal 259 JOHN WILLIAMSON The falaj-a traditional co-operative system of water management 268 SALLY SUTTON References and Further Reading 276