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Community Impact Evaluation : Principles And Practice - Nathaniel Lichfield

Community Impact Evaluation

Principles And Practice

Paperback Published: 1st February 1996
ISBN: 9781857282382
Number Of Pages: 384

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This is a work summarizing in one volume the pioneering approach of the author to public-interest decision-taking in the field of urban & regional planning. This book is aimed at students, researchers and professionals in planning. Nathaniel Lichfield first introduced in his "Economics of Planned Development" the concept that, in any use and development of land, the traditional "development balance sheet" of the developers needed to be accompanied by a "planning balance sheet" prepared by the planning officer or planning authority. Over the forty years since this work was published, the author has brought to the operational level the "planning balance sheet", with many case studies, primarily for consultancy purposes. The present title reflects the incorporation during the 1970s of the then emerging field of environmental impact assessment.

Prefacep. xi
Acknowledgementsp. xv
Dedicationp. xvii
Summariesp. xix
The nature of urban and regional planningp. 1
A concept of the urban and regional systemp. 1
Modelling the systemp. 3
A model of the urban and regional systemp. 4
The adaptation of space through development process without government interventionp. 6
Change in the system with government interventionp. 10
Planning in the evolution of the urban and regional systemp. 12
Planning and managementp. 18
Development planning as the focus of this bookp. 19
Choice, decision and action in everyday lifep. 27
The boundaries of choicep. 27
Choice and decisionp. 27
Decision and actionp. 28
Action and reviewp. 28
Hard and soft choices/decisionsp. 29
Decision theoryp. 30
Context for decisions in practicep. 32
Evaluation for choice in land-use planningp. 33
The role of tests in planningp. 33
Ex ante evaluation as a particular testp. 36
An earlier review of ex ante evaluation methodsp. 37
The changing basis for choice between methodsp. 37
Basis for current reviewp. 38
The reviewp. 38
Postscriptp. 46
The cost-benefit family in plan and project evaluationp. 47
Value for money as a common objective in economic lifep. 47
The cost-benefit family of methodsp. 48
Some differences in objectives within the cost-benefit familyp. 49
Specialization in the different methodsp. 50
The limitations of CBA in urban and regional planningp. 52
The role of the cost-benefit family in plan evaluationp. 55
Role of PBSA/CIA as planning analysisp. 59
Theory and principles of impact assessmentp. 61
Origins and evolutionsp. 61
Some definitionsp. 61
The various impact assessments and their sourcesp. 63
Methodology of impact assessment for projectsp. 69
Impact assessment of plans, policies and programmesp. 78
Theory and principles of cost-benefit analysisp. 83
Origins and applicationsp. 83
Procedures in cost-benefit analysisp. 84
The analysis and evaluationp. 86
The generic method of community impact evaluation applied to projectsp. 104
What is a project?p. 104
Project planning in the project life-cyclep. 105
The nature of project planningp. 106
What is project appraisal/assessment/evaluation?p. 108
The generic method of project evaluation by CIAp. 108
Comprehending the conclusions of a CIEp. 139
Contextp. 139
The approachp. 139
Display or indexp. 140
Drawing a conclusion from a CIE displayp. 143
Simplification of the generic methodp. 150
The occasions for the simplified methodp. 150
Which steps to simplify in the generic modelp. 151
Effect and impact assessment combinedp. 152
Applying the simplificationp. 154
A conclusion: rigorous but flexiblep. 156
Theory and principles of community impact evaluationp. 157
Theory and principles already coveredp. 157
Effect assessment: Box 10p. 157
Impact evaluation: Box 11p. 160
Social accounting in impact evaluationp. 166
Decision analysis: Box 12p. 169
The evaluation reportp. 176
Fact and valuep. 177
Value content in the cost-benefit familyp. 178
From measurement to evaluationp. 181
CIE and utilitarianismp. 189
CIE in democratic planningp. 193
Is the planning process democratic?p. 193
Advancing the democratic process in planningp. 196
How can CIE help?p. 197
The planning processp. 201
The role of evaluation in the planning processp. 201
Plan-makingp. 202
Plan implementationp. 204
Plan reviewp. 205
Relationship of plan review to other kinds of reviewp. 206
Relationship of evaluation analyst to the planning teamp. 207
Roads: a case study comparing COBA, framework appraisal and CIEp. 209
Review of highway evaluation methodologyp. 209
Context for the case studyp. 211
Highway authority economic evaluation of IRRp. 212
Urban road appraisal of Brigg inner relief roadp. 213
CIE of Brigg inner relief roadp. 216
Is the cost of the IRR worthwhilep. 217
Development controlp. 222
Development control: a key element in plan implementationp. 222
Development control is conditioned by the statutory planning processp. 222
The development control process in England and Walesp. 223
Project planning and development controlp. 225
Considerations in deciding a planning application or appealp. 228
Guidelines for balancing the considerationsp. 229
How should the balance be struck?p. 234
Application of the generic model to development controlp. 244
Application to appeals inquiriesp. 247
A framework for judging sustainable developmentp. 248
Adaptation of the generic model for development controlp. 251
Lament for planning decisionsp. 252
Planning gain/obligationp. 254
Originsp. 254
Evolutionp. 256
The changesp. 256
Planning obligations and development controlp. 257
The cultural build heritagep. 260
What is the cultural built heritage?p. 260
The statutory framework for conservationp. 261
The development control issuep. 262
Negotiation, bargaining and mediationp. 263
Considerations in the conservation and planning decisionp. 264
Approach to the balanced decisionp. 268
Use of the generic model, by reference to boxesp. 268
Weighting in conservationp. 269
Integrating the environment into development planningp. 272
Environmental protectionp. 272
Environmental protection and the planning systemp. 273
Planning/environmental assessment and the generic methodp. 278
Strategic environmental assessment and strategic plan evaluationp. 300
Mutual interaction of environmental and planning assessmentp. 301
Green beltsp. 305
Historical introduction: the sanctity of green beltsp. 305
Current provisions for the protection of green beltsp. 305
Presumptions in green belt policyp. 306
Planning considerationsp. 307
The generic model and green belt developmentp. 308
Deregulationp. 309
Contextp. 309
The approach to lifting the burdenp. 309
The removal of established controlsp. 311
Decommissioning of developmentp. 313
Application of the generic modelp. 314
CIE study managementp. 315
Approachp. 315
Role of evaluation in the planning processp. 315
Setting up terms of reference for evaluation analystsp. 316
Best use of available resourcesp. 318
Best use of datap. 319
Link to the generic methodp. 319
Evaluation study programmep. 321
Case studies in planning balance sheet and community impact analysisp. 323
Categorization of case studiesp. 326
Bibliographyp. 329
Indexp. 345
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9781857282382
ISBN-10: 1857282388
Audience: Professional
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 384
Published: 1st February 1996
Publisher: UCL PR
Country of Publication: GB
Dimensions (cm): 24.13 x 15.88  x 1.91
Weight (kg): 0.52
Edition Number: 1

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