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Comic Rays in Interplanetary Magnetics Fields : GEOPHYSICS AND ASTROPHYSICS MONOGRAPHS - Igor N. Toptygin

Comic Rays in Interplanetary Magnetics Fields


By: Igor N. Toptygin, D. G. Yakovlev (Translator)


Published: 31st December 1985
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Fast particles of natural or1g1n (cosmic rays) have been used for a long time as an important source of astrophysical and geophysical information. A study of cosmic ray spectra, time variations, abundances, gradients, and anisotropy provides a wealth of data on physical conditions in the regions of cosmic ray generation as well as in the media through which cosmic rays propagate. Astrophysical aspects of cosmic ray physics have been considered in a number of monograpqs. The most detailed seems to be "The Origin of Cosmic Rays" by V. L. Ginzburg and S. 1. Syrovatskij (1964) which is, however, concerned mainly with galactic cosmic rays. The physics of the circumsolar space is discussed in this book only rather briefly. Several other monographs have been devoted mostly to the physics of the interplanetary medium and cosmic rays in interplanetary space. These include the books by Dorman (1963, 1975a, b), Parker (1963), Dorman and Miroshnichenko (1968). The present monograph differs from the above mentioned books in two main aspects: (i) It presents a unified theoretical approach to analys{ng the properties of fast particles in interplanetary space, based upon consideration of cosmic rays as a highly energetic component of the interplane~ary plasma, which makes use of the plasma physics methods to describe the behaviour of cosmic rays.

I: Physical Properties of the Interplanetary Medium.- 1. The Solar Wind.- 1.1. Observational Data on the Solar Wind.- 1.2. Origin of the Solar Wind.- 1.3. Interaction of the Solar Wind with the Interstellar Medium.- 2. Large-scale Interplanetary Magnetic Fields.- 2.1. Observational Data on Large-scale Interplanetary Magnetic Fields and their Association with Magnetic Fields on the Sun.- 2.2. Theory of Interplanetary Magnetic Fields and Comparison with Experiment.- 3. Oscillations and Waves in Solar Wind Plasma.- 3.1. Disturbances of the Interplanetary Medium.- 3.2. Theory of MHD Waves in the Non-uniform Solar Wind.- 3.3. Observational Data on MHD Waves.- 4. Shocks and Discontinuities in the Interplanetary Medium.- 4.1. Possible Types of MHD Shocks and Discontinuities in the Interplanetary Plasma.- 4.2. Observational Data on MHD Shocks and Discontinuities in the Solar Wind Plasma.- 5. Spectral Description of Stochastic Magnetic Fields.- 5.1. Correlation Tensors of Stochastic Magnetic Fields.- 5.2. Spectra of Magnetic Fields and Plasma Parameters.- 5.3. On the Theory of Solar Wind Turbulence.- II: Theory of Fast Particle Motion in Interplanetary Magnetic Fields.- 6. Qualitative Picture of Fast Particle Motion in Interplanetary Space.- 7. Kinetic Equation for Particles Moving in Magnetic Fields with Small-scale Inhomogeneities.- 7.1. Initial Equation and Basic Approximations.- 7.2. Averaging over Small-scale Magnetic Fields.- 7.3. Kinetic Equation. The Case of Small-scale Inhomogeneities.- 8. Transport Equation.- 8.1. Diffusion Approximation. Convective Transport and Adiabatic Variation of Particle Energy.- 8.2. Transport Equation for Scattering of Particles on MHD Discontinuities and Magnetic Clouds.- 8.3. Second-order Acceleration Effects for Regular Large-scale Plasma Motions.- 8.4. Derivation of the Transport Equation on the Basis of Drift Approximation.- 9. Scattering and Transport of Particles in Strong Magnetic Fields.- 9.1. Averaging over Particle Rotations Round Magnetic Field Lines and Over Large-scale Random Magnetic Fields.- 9.2. Evaluation of Pitch-angle Diffusion Coefficient.- 9.3. Diffusion Equation. Longitudinal Diffusion Coefficient.- 9.4. Transverse Diffusion Coefficient.- 9.5. Evaluation of Diffusion Coefficient from Experimental Data on Spectra of Magnetic Fluctuations and Comparison with Experiment.- III: Propagation of Energetic Solar Particles.- 10. Basic Observational Data on Energetic Particles of Solar Origin.- 10.1. Overall Data.- 10.2. Abundance of Energetic Solar Particles (Nucleon Component).- 10.3. Events Enriched by 3He and Heavy Elements.- 10.4. Spectra of Energetic Solar Particles.- 10.5. Temporal Rises of Energetic Solar Particle Intensity.- 10.6. Anisotropy of Low-energy Solar Protons.- 10.7. Coronal Propagation.- 10.8. Quasi-stationary Background of Low-energy Particles in Interplanetary Space.- 10.9. Anomalous Component.- 10.10. Solar Electrons.- 10.11. Total Energy of Particles Accelerated in Solar Flares.- 11. Anisotropic Propagation of Solar Cosmic Rays.- 11.1. Stationary Propagation of Particle Streams with Large Anisotropy.- 11.2. Temporal Variation of Intensity for Large Particle Transport Paths.- 11.3. Scattering at Pitch Angles Close to TT/2. Coherent Propagation of Solar Particles.- 11.4. Numerical Simulations of Solar Proton Propagation.- 12. Stationary Transport of Solar Cosmic Rays.- 13. Diffusion and Convection of Solar-flare Cosmic Rays.- 13.1. Transport of Non-relativistic Protons.- 13.2. Temporal Variation of Anisotropy.- 13.3. Numerical Simulations of Transport of Solar-flare Particles with Allowance for Convection and Adiabatic Deceleration.- IV: Particle Acceleration Processes in Interplanetary Space.- 14. Observational Data on Energy Variations of Cosmic Rays in Interplanetary Space.- 14.1. Observations of Adiabatic Particle Deceleration.- 14.2. Basic Data on Acceleration Processes in Interplanetary Space.- 14.3. Particle Acceleration in Corotating High-speed Streams.- 14.4. Anomalous Component Acceleration.- 14.5. Particle Acceleration in Planetary Magnetospheres.- 14.6. Particle Acceleration at the Heliomagnetosphere Boundary.- 15. Particle Acceleration Due to Random Plasma Motions: Fermi Mechanism.- 15.1. Particle Acceleration in the Moving Cloud Model.- 15.2. Acceleration Due to Large-scale Motions of the Medium.- 15.3. Particle Acceleration by Gyrotropic Turbulence.- 16. Particle Acceleration by MHD Turbulence.- 16.1. Acceleration by Small-scale Fields. Energy Diffusion.- 16.2. Acceleration of Non-confined and Confined Particles by Large-scale Fields.- 16.3. List of Main Results.- 16.4. Estimates of the Turbulent Acceleration Coefficient in Interplanetary Space.- 17. Formation of Spectra of Accelerated Particles.- 17.1. Spectra of Particles Accelerated by MHD Turbulence.- 17.1.1. Non-stationary Acceleration in a Uniform System.- 17.1.2. Acceleration with Account for Spatial Diffusion.- 17.2. Effect of Acceleration on Transport of Solar Protons.- 17.2.1. The Effects of Adiabatic Losses and Acceleration.- 17.2.2. Joint Account for Adiabatic Losses, Acceleration and Spatial Diffusion.- 17.3. Particle Acceleration in the Magnetosphere of Jupiter.- 18. Acceleration and Transport of Particles by MHD Shocks.- 18.1. Fast Particle Interaction with Shock Front: Acceleration, Reflection and Crossing.- 18.2. Fermi Acceleration of Particles Near a Shock in a Turbulent Medium. Boundary Conditions for Fast Particles at MHD Shock Fronts.- 18.3. Acceleration and Transport of Solar-flare protons by Interplanetary Shocks (Diffusion Model).- 18.4. Monte Carlo Simulations of Proton Transport by Shocks.- 18.5. Short-term Enhancements with Large Anisotropics and Soft Spectra.- 18.6. Proton Acceleration to Relativistic Energies in Inter-planetary Space.- 18.7. Acceleration of Particles from the Uniform Background and Formation of the "Universal" Spectrum of Cosmic Rays.- 18.8. Generation of Turbulence by Accelerated Particles near Interplanetary Shock Fronts.- 18.9. The Role of Energy Losses and Particle Injection into the Regime of Acceleration by a Shock.- 18.10. The Effect of Accelerated Particles on Shock Front Structure.- 18.11. Fast Particle Acceleration by a Moving Spherical Shock.- V: Modulation of Galactic Cosmic Rays.- 19. Basic Observational Data on Galactic Cosmic Rays.- 19.1. Abundances of Galactic Cosmic Rays.- 19.2. Energy Spectra of Primary Cosmic Rays.- 19.3. Intensity Variations of Galactic Cosmic Rays Due to Interaction with Interplanetary Magnetic Fields.- 19.3.1. 11-year Variation.- 19.3.2. 27 day Variations.- 19.3.3. Forbush Decreases.- 19.3.4. Short-term Variations (Intensity Fluctuations) of Cosmic Rays.- 19.4. Anisotropy of Galactic Cosmic Rays.- 19.5. Radial and Latitudinal Gradients of Galactic Cosmic Rays.- 20. Theory of Galactic Cosmic Ray Modulation by Solar Wind Magnetic Field.- 20.1. The Diffusion-convection Model.- 20.2. The Effect of Drifts in Non-uniform Interplanetary Magnetic Fields on Modulation of Galactic Cosmic Rays.- 20.3. Particle Acceleration in the Region where the Solar Wind Interacts with the Interstellar Medium.- 21. Short-term Variations of Cosmic Ray Intensity.- 21.1. The Sources of Short-term Cosmic Ray Variations.- 21.2. Equation for Two-particle Distribution Function.- 21.3. Intensity Fluctuations of High-energy Cosmic Rays.- 21.4. Equation for Two-particle Distribution Function in the Drift Approximation.- 21.5. Fluctuations of Moderate-energy Particles.- 21.6. Comparison with Experiment.- Concluding Remarks.- I. The Green Function of the Stationary Transport Equation.- II. Solution to Non-stationary Transport Equation for a Constant Diffusion Coefficient.- III. Adiabatic Invariant of Charged Particle Crossing a Transverse Shock.- IV. Adiabatic Invariant of Charged Particle Crossing an Oblique Shock.

ISBN: 9789027718631
ISBN-10: 9027718636
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 376
Published: 31st December 1985
Publisher: Springer
Country of Publication: NL
Dimensions (cm): 23.5 x 15.5  x 2.2
Weight (kg): 0.75