In Europe as well as in other parts of the world, xenophobia and racism are among the unsolved problems of the ending 20th century. Globalization, mass migration and unemployment as well as the need to invent new supra- or crossnational identities require new political answers concerning the problems of inclusion and exclusion.
In the United States and in Canada, 'affirmative action' programmes are among those policies which are intended to redress the injustice of discrimination based primarily on race, ethnicity, sex, but also on national origin, religion, or disability.
This timely book is the first to present an overview of these hotly debated questions and the anti-discrimination policies in different countries. Experts from the United States, Canada and Europe examine the historical, institutional, judicial and sociological conditions of affirmative action and look at shifting concepts of racism, equality, integration and assimilation. They address the vital questions of whether policies originally created to increase opportunities for African Americans can be applied in Europe; whether the primary goal of 'affirmative action' should be to correct injustice or to safeguard diversity; and whether the democratic ideal of individual equality is at odds with what many perceive as preferential treatment.
Moral success but political failure? Compensatory justice or reverse discrimination? This important book evaluates more than thirty years of affirmative action and helps to develop new instruments to deal with the roots and the effects of discrimination.
'(The) contributions are wide-ranging and of interest.' Journal of Social Policy 'Appelt and jarosch's volume [draws] from an international conference held in Austria in 1998, and [provides] a rich source of information on anti-discrimination legislation in the United States, Canada and Europe.' Patterns of Prejudice 'This interesting and exciting collection assumes a certain familiarity with the constitutions and justice systems of the countries discussed and especially the USA...even if it cannot offer a solution, the excellent intention of the book is to confront the practical and immediate experiences of America with European conflicts.' Das Historisch-Politische Buch