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Colloidal Dispersions : Cambridge Monographs on Mechanics & Applied Mathematics - W. B. Russel

Colloidal Dispersions

Cambridge Monographs on Mechanics & Applied Mathematics

Paperback

Published: 25th May 1992
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The book covers the physical side of colloid science from the individual forces acting between submicron particles suspended in a liquid through the resulting equilibrium and dynamic properties. The relevant forces include Brownian motion, electrostatic repulsion, dispersion attraction, both attraction and repulsion due to soluble polymer, and viscous forces due to relative motion between the particles and the liquid. The balance among Brownian motion and the interparticle forces decides the questions of stability and phase behavior. Imposition of external fields produces complex effects, i.e. electrokinetic phenomena (electric field), sedimentation (gravitational field), diffusion (concentration/chemical potential gradient), and non-Newtonian rheology (shear field). The treatment aims to impart a sound, quantitative understanding based on fundamental theory and experiments with well-characterized model systems. This broad grasp of the fundamentals lends insight and helps to develop the intuitive sense needed to isolate essential features of technological problems and design critical experiments. Some exposure to fluid mechanics, statistical mechanics, and electricity and magnetism is assumed, but each subject is reintroduced in a self-contained manner.

'Many readers, in particular theoreticians, will find it quite useful in developing a clear understanding of the advanced theory of colloidal systems and how it is related to experiment...[an] excellent but advanced book.' Journal of Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics 'Colloidal Dispersions clearly sets a high standard for the teaching and understanding of colloid science in terms of relating microstructure to macroscopic behavior. There is no question that it is a necessary reference for anyone seriously interested in colloid science.' Langmuir

Frontispiece
Prefacep. xiii
Units and physical constantsp. xvi
Mathematical symbolsp. xviii
A Survey of Colloidal Dispersionsp. 1
Colloidal phenomenap. 1
Historical notesp. 7
Recent developmentsp. 9
The classification of colloidsp. 12
An overviewp. 14
Referencesp. 18
Hydrodynamicsp. 21
Introductionp. 21
Description of the motion of continuous mediap. 22
Two simple flow fieldsp. 25
Steady laminar shearp. 25
Potential flow past a spherep. 28
Characteristics of Stokes flowp. 30
Singular solutions to the Stokes equationsp. 31
Dynamics of isolated spheresp. 35
Unsteady translation of spheresp. 42
Two spheres translating through a quiescent fluidp. 44
Two spheres in a shear flowp. 53
Summaryp. 60
Referencesp. 62
Problemsp. 63
Brownian Motionp. 65
Introductionp. 65
The Langevin equationp. 66
Brownian motion and diffusionp. 68
Measurement by photon correlation spectroscopyp. 72
Pair interactionsp. 76
Brownian dynamicsp. 82
Summaryp. 84
Referencesp. 85
Problemsp. 86
Electrostaticsp. 88
Introductionp. 88
Electrostatic fieldsp. 89
Boundary conditionsp. 92
The electric stress tensorp. 94
The origins of interfacial chargep. 96
The Gouy-Chapman model of the diffuse layerp. 99
The diffuse layer near a flat platep. 101
The diffuse layer around a spherep. 109
Repulsion between charged platesp. 111
Repulsion between charged spheresp. 115
Tests of the Gouy-Chapman theoryp. 120
Summaryp. 123
Referencesp. 124
Problemsp. 126
Dispersion forcesp. 129
Introductionp. 129
Intermolecular forces and the microscopic theoryp. 130
Overview of the continuum theoryp. 136
Dielectric response of materialsp. 138
Theory for flat platesp. 142
Solution of the boundary value problemp. 142
Interaction potentialp. 145
Effect of electrolytep. 146
Calculations for specific materialsp. 147
Geometrical effects: the Derjaguin approximationp. 149
Direct measurementsp. 150
A simplified approximation for flat platesp. 153
Interactions between spheresp. 156
Summaryp. 158
Referencesp. 159
Problemsp. 160
Forces due to soluble polymerp. 162
Introductionp. 163
Polymers in solutionp. 164
General featuresp. 164
Thermodynamic functionsp. 168
Self-consistent field theoryp. 172
Application to bulk solutionsp. 176
Terminally anchored polymersp. 176
Structure of isolated layersp. 176
Interactions between layers: ideal solutionsp. 181
Interactions between layers: good and poor solventsp. 183
Experimental resultsp. 186
Non-adsorbing polymerp. 189
Adsorbing polymerp. 194
Structure of isolated layersp. 194
Interactions between adsorbed layersp. 201
Summaryp. 205
Referencesp. 206
Problemsp. 209
Electrokinetic phenomenap. 211
Introductionp. 211
Examples of electrokinetic phenomenap. 211
A model problemp. 212
Electrophoresisp. 215
Scale analysisp. 216
A thick diffuse layerp. 219
A thin diffuse layerp. 220
Electrophoresis with an equilibrium diffuse layerp. 222
Effects due to deformation of the diffuse layerp. 223
Measurements of electrophoretic mobilitiesp. 227
Comparisons between theory and experimentp. 229
Electrical conductivity of dilute suspensionsp. 231
Maxwell's theoryp. 231
Diffuse layer effectsp. 232
Comparisons between theory and experimentp. 235
Dilute suspensions with alternating electric fieldsp. 238
The leaky dielectricp. 239
Maxwell-Wagner theoryp. 241
Behavior of suspensions of colloidal particlesp. 243
Summaryp. 252
Referencesp. 253
Problemsp. 256
Electrostatic stabilizationp. 258
Introductionp. 258
Interparticle potential and criteria for stabilityp. 260
Conservation equations for probability densitiesp. 262
Initial stage of Brownian flocculationp. 267
Predictions of the stability ratiop. 271
Measurements of doublet formation ratesp. 274
Growth and structure of large flocsp. 279
Doublet formation in shear flowsp. 289
Diffusion dominated flocculation: Pe [double less-than sign] 1p. 289
Convection dominated flocculation: Pe [double greater-than sign] 1p. 292
Growth of large aggregates in shearp. 298
Criteria for mechanical stabilityp. 299
Experimental studies of shear flocculationp. 303
Summaryp. 305
Referencesp. 305
Problemsp. 308
Polymeric stabilizationp. 310
Introductionp. 310
Criteria for stabilityp. 312
Interaction potential between spheres with polymer layersp. 313
Stability with respect to dispersion forcesp. 315
Critical flocculation pointp. 316
Measurements of critical flocculation pointp. 319
Summaryp. 327
Referencesp. 327
Problemsp. 328
Equilibrium phase behaviorp. 329
Introductionp. 329
The statistical mechanical approachp. 332
Equilibrium properties of dilute suspensionsp. 334
Perturbation theoryp. 335
Suspensions of hard spheresp. 338
Disorder-order transition for charged spheresp. 343
Phase transitions induced by dissolved polymerp. 349
Application of the perturbation theoryp. 350
Hard spheres in ideal polymer solutionsp. 352
Electrostatically stabilized dispersionsp. 353
Polymerically stabilized dispersionsp. 357
Summaryp. 360
Referencesp. 361
Problemsp. 364
Particle capturep. 366
Introductionp. 366
Capture efficiency and the filter coefficientp. 367
Scale analysisp. 370
Capture of non-Brownian particlesp. 374
Inertial capturep. 375
Capture with attractive forcesp. 377
Capture with electrostatic repulsionp. 380
Capture of Brownian particlesp. 383
Experimental measurementsp. 387
Experiments with rotating discsp. 388
Experiments with packed bedsp. 389
Summaryp. 391
Referencesp. 391
Problemsp. 393
Sedimentationp. 394
Introductionp. 394
Ensemble average velocitiesp. 396
Monodisperse suspensions of spheresp. 400
Polydisperse suspensions of spheresp. 405
Theory of batch settlingp. 411
Hard spheres at infinite Peclet numberp. 414
Hard spheres at finite Peclet numberp. 423
Summaryp. 425
Referencesp. 426
Problemsp. 427
Diffusionp. 429
Introductionp. 429
Gradient diffusion of monodisperse spheresp. 432
Equilibrium in the presence of an external potentialp. 437
Principles of photon correlation spectroscopyp. 441
Initial decay of the autocorrelation functionsp. 444
Wavenumber-dependent diffusion coefficientp. 447
Summaryp. 452
Referencesp. 453
Problemsp. 454
Rheology
Introductionp. 456
Characterization of rheological behaviorp. 457
Dimensional analysisp. 464
Hard spheresp. 466
Charged spheresp. 471
Polymerically stabilized spheresp. 477
Weakly flocculated dispersionsp. 481
Motivation for pair interaction theoriesp. 488
Non-equilibrium microstructurep. 488
Macroscopic stressesp. 493
Results and comparison with experimentp. 497
Summaryp. 503
Referencesp. 503
Problemsp. 505
Measured propertiesp. 507
Vector and tensor notationp. 508
Author indexp. 511
Subject indexp. 517
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780521426008
ISBN-10: 0521426006
Series: Cambridge Monographs on Mechanics & Applied Mathematics
Audience: Professional
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 544
Published: 25th May 1992
Publisher: CAMBRIDGE UNIV PR
Country of Publication: GB
Dimensions (cm): 23.04 x 15.67  x 3.15
Weight (kg): 0.75