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Collective Agreements and Individual Contracts of Employment : Series in Employment and Social Policy - Michal Sewerynski

Collective Agreements and Individual Contracts of Employment

Series in Employment and Social Policy

By: Michal Sewerynski (Editor)

Hardcover Published: October 2003
ISBN: 9789041121905
Number Of Pages: 272

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While it can be said that the use of collective labour agreements has greatly expanded during the last decade - witness their growing application in the public sector, and their introduction in many post-communist countries - it is hard to deny that their power to protect employees has diminished considerably and continues to weaken. An understanding of the factors that have contributed to this fundamental change in economic and social conditions is of crucial significance if we are to preserve an equitable balance in the employer-employee relationship. A growing body of research and commentary already surrounds this important subject. In this symposium sixteen outstanding scholars have assembled a preliminary survey of the essential issues and the means by which they are being addressed in a variety of different countries. The eleven papers reprinted here were originally presented at the 16th Congress of the International Academy of Comparative Law, held in Brisbane in July 2002. Each paper is organized around the following considerations for the particular country in question: * factors determining the role of collective agreements; * factors determining the regulatory power of collective agreements toward the employment contract; * factors limiting the regulatory power of collective agreements; * degree of freedom of the parties to shape the employment contract; and, * future prospects for collective agreements as a means of regulating the employment contract. Underlying issues of decentralization, minimum standards, decreasing unionization, unemployment, and the growing individualization of the employment contract are addressed by all the authors. The countries covered are Australia, Belgium, Canada (Quebec), Greece, Italy, Japan, The Netherlands, Poland, South Africa and Switzerland. Collective Agreements and Individual Contracts of Employment offers a convenient platform from which to conduct further research into this complex and dynamic subject. It is sure to be welcomed by specialists in labour law and industrial relations and by other social science professionals.

Forewordp. xv
Notes on Contributorsp. xvi
Collective Agreements and Individual Contracts of Employment in Labour Law--General Reportp. 1
Factors determining the Position of Collective Agreements in Contemporary Industrial Relationsp. 1
Freedom of Collective Bargaining as an Integral Element of Democracyp. 1
Collective Agreements as an Integral Element of the Market Economyp. 4
Collective Agreements as an Instrument of Labour Relations Regulationp. 5
Factors Determining the Regulatory Power of Collective Agreements towards Contract of Employmentp. 6
Normative Character of Collective Agreementsp. 6
Derogatory Effect of Collective Agreementsp. 9
Duty to Bargainp. 12
Application of Collective Agreements to all Employees Concernedp. 13
Extension of Collective Agreements by the Public Authorityp. 14
Prolongation of the Collective Agreement Applicationp. 16
Factors Limiting the Regulatory Power of Collective Agreementsp. 16
Contractual Character of Collective Agreementsp. 16
No Duty to Bargainp. 17
Collective Agreements applied only to Union Membersp. 18
Statutory Limits of the Scope of Collective Agreementsp. 19
Limits Imposed on Collective Agreements by Basic Agreementsp. 22
Limits Imposed by Higher-Level Collective Agreementsp. 24
Collective Agreement Regulation and Freedom of the Parties to shape the Contract of Employmentp. 25
Freedom to put into the Contract of Employment more favourable terms than those of Collective Agreementsp. 25
No Freedom to Derogate from Collective Agreementsp. 26
Prospects of the Regulatory Function of Collective Agreements towards the Contract of Employmentp. 27
Collective Agreements and the Evolution of Trade Unionsp. 27
Collective Agreements and the Evolution of Economyp. 35
Conclusionsp. 45
Individualism and Collectivism in Agreement-Making under Australian Labour Lawp. 49
Introduction: Compulsory Arbitration, Collective Agreements and Individual Contractsp. 49
Collective Labour Agreements as one of the Pillars of Contemporary Labour Relationsp. 52
Democracy and Collective Labour Agreementsp. 52
Market Economy and Collective Labour Agreementsp. 57
Collective Labour Agreements as an Instrument of Negotiated Social Policyp. 58
Freedom to Negotiate Collective Labour Agreements as a Principle of Labour Lawp. 59
Legal Mechanisms for shaping the Content of the Employment Contract via Collective Agreementp. 64
Normative Mechanismp. 65
Contractual Mechanismp. 67
Replacement of terms of the Contract of Employment by Provisions of a Collective Agreementp. 69
Factors determining the Regulatory Power of Collective Labour Agreements towards the Employment Contractp. 70
Collective Agreements and Deregulationp. 70
Statutory Limits of the Scope of Collective Labour Agreementsp. 72
Exclusion of some Employees' Groups from a Collective Labour Agreement as stipulated by its Partiesp. 74
Extension of a Collective Labour Agreement by a Public Authorityp. 75
Limits imposed on a Lower-Level Collective Labour Agreement by a Higher-level Collective Agreementp. 75
Regulation of Collective Labour Agreements and Freedom of Parties to a Contract of Employmentp. 76
Prospects for Collective Labour Agreements as a means of regulation of an Employment Contractp. 78
Accords collectives et individuals de travail en droit du travail belgep. 83
La place de la convention collective de travail dans l'ordonnancement juridique belgep. 83
Le cadre normatifp. 83
La nature juridique des conventions collectives de travailp. 84
Mecanismes legaux permettant d'affecter le contrat de travail via conventions collectives de travailp. 86
La convention collective de travailp. 86
Conclusion de la convention collectivep. 86
Duree de la convention collectivep. 88
Contenu de la convention collective de travailp. 89
Effets de la convention collective sur les dispositions du contrat de travailp. 90
Le reglement de travailp. 92
Elaboration et modification du reglement de travailp. 92
Publicite du reglement de travailp. 93
Contenu du reglement de travailp. 94
Effet du reglement de travailp. 94
Facteurs determinant le pouvoir regulatoire des accords collectives de travail envers le contrat de travailp. 95
Accords collectifs de travail et deregulationp. 95
Loi semi-imperative
La loi unilateralement imperativep. 95
Limites legales du champ d'application des conventions collectives de travailp. 96
Exclusion de la negociation collective de certaines matieresp. 96
Exclusion de la reglementation des accords collectifs de travail de certains groupes de travailleurs ou de certains domaines d'emploip. 98
Exclusion de certains groupes de salaries des conventions collectives de travail decidees par les parties: le probleme des avantages reserves aux syndiquesp. 99
Extension d'une convention collective de travail par une autorite publiquep. 100
Procedurep. 100
Effetsp. 101
Modalites selon lesquelles l'extension cesse de produire ses effetsp. 101
Limites imposees a un niveau inferieur de conventions collectives par un niveau superieur de conventions collectivesp. 102
Limites imposees a un niveau inferieur de conventions collectives de travail par un niveau normatif superieur, compte tenu de l'objet des dispositionsp. 102
Limites imposees a un niveau inferieur de conventions collectives de travail par un niveau normatif superieur en raison de la hierarchie des normesp. 102
Conventions collectives de travail et liberte des parties au contrat de travailp. 104
Perspectives des conventions collectives de travail en tant que moyen de regulation du contrat de travail: Les conventions collectives de travail et les actes juridiques voisinsp. 104
La convention collective 'irreguliere'p. 104
Le reglement de travailp. 105
Decisionp. 105
L'acte d'adhesionp. 106
Convention collectives et contrats individuels de travail en droit quebecoisp. 109
Introductionp. 109
Description et comparaisonp. 111
Le contrat individuel de travailp. 111
Les regles du Code civilp. 112
Les lois complementairesp. 120
La convention collective de travailp. 124
Definition et contenup. 125
Caracteristiques et nature juridiquep. 127
Rapports entre le contrat et la conventionp. 132
Rapports du contrat individuel avec le regime collectifp. 132
Rapports de la convention collective avec le regime individuelp. 132
Rapport avec le droit du regime individuelp. 133
Rapport avec contrat individuel de travailp. 134
Conclusionp. 135
Code civil du Quebecp. 138
Collective Agreements and Individual Employment Contracts: Developments in the Light of Comparative Law--Greek Reportp. 141
Collective Agreements and Individual Contracts of Employment in Labour Law--Italian Reportp. 147
Constitutional Frameworkp. 147
Development of Collective Bargainingp. 148
Collective Agreements as Contractsp. 151
Conclusions: Collective Agreements between Civil Law and Public Lawp. 154
Collective Labour Agreements and Individual Contracts of Employment in Japanese Labour Lawp. 157
Collective Labour Agreements as one of the Pillars of Contemporary Labour Relationsp. 157
The Legal System of Collective Bargainingp. 157
Japanese Enterprise Unionismp. 158
Legal Mechanisms of shaping the Content of the Contract of Employment through Collective Labour Agreementsp. 159
Peculiarity of the Japanese Legal System on the Formation or Modification of Working Conditionsp. 159
Legal Form and Effect of Collective Labour Agreementsp. 160
Legal Form and Effect of Work Rulesp. 161
Factors determining the Regulatory Power of Collective Labour Agreements towards the Contract of Employmentp. 162
Collective Labour Agreements and Deregulationp. 162
Statutory Limits of the Scope of Collective Labour Agreementsp. 163
Exclusion of Some Employees' Groups from the Collective Labour Agreement Concluded by its Partiesp. 163
Extension of a Collective Labour Agreement by a Public Authorityp. 163
Limits imposed on a Lower-level Collective Labour Agreement by a Higher-level Collective Labour Agreementp. 164
Collective Labour Agreement Regulation and Freedom of Parties to Enter into Contracts of Employmentp. 164
Prospects of Collective Labour Agreements as a Means of Regulation of an Employment Contractp. 164
Collective Labour Agreements and the Evolution of Trade Unions and Employers' Organizationsp. 164
Collective Labour Agreements and other Collective Accordsp. 165
Evolution of the Economy and its Impact on the Application of Collective Labour Agreementsp. 165
Conclusionp. 166
Collective Agreements and Individual Contracts of Employment in Labour Law--Netherlands Reportp. 167
Collective Labour Relations: the Institutional Contextp. 167
Collective Labour Relations: the Legal Contextp. 170
Generalp. 170
Freedom and Duty to Negotiatep. 172
Statutory Regulation of Collective Agreements and Similar Instrumentsp. 173
The Concept of the Collective Agreement in the Collective Labour Agreements Act 1927p. 174
The Scope of Application of Collective Agreementsp. 175
The Binding Character of Collective Agreements and their effect on the Individual Employment Contractp. 176
The Contents of Collective Agreements: Legal Constraintsp. 179
Generalp. 179
Arbitration Clausesp. 180
Closed Shopp. 181
Non-competition Clausesp. 182
Conflicts between Collective Agreements and Individual Agreements: the Absence of a more favourable Right-provision in Dutch Lawp. 183
Conflicts amongst Collective Agreementsp. 183
Future Problems and Trends: the changing position of the Unionsp. 185
Future Problems and Trends: the changing position of Collective Arrangementsp. 186
Tendering out, Temp-workers and Self-employmentp. 187
Levels of Negotiation: from Sector to Undertaking and backp. 188
Framework Agreements and Labour Conditions 'a la carte'p. 189
Conclusionsp. 189
Collective Labour Agreements and Contracts of Employment in Polish Labour Lawp. 191
General Description of Collective Agreements as a source of Labour Lawp. 191
Legal Mechanism for regulating the Content of the Employment Relationship by means of a Collective Labour Agreementp. 193
Factors determining the Role of Collective Labour Agreements as a means of shaping the Content of Employment Contractsp. 194
Perspectives for regulating the Content of Employment Contracts by means of Collective Agreementsp. 202
Collective Agreements and Individual Contracts of Employment in Labour Law--South Africa Reportp. 207
Collective Labour Agreements as one of the Pillars of Contemporary Labour Relationsp. 207
Recognition of freedom to negotiate collective agreements within the democratic systemp. 207
Constitutionalization of freedom to negotiate collective labour agreementsp. 209
Market Economy and Collective Labour Agreementsp. 210
Collective Labour Agreements as instruments of negotiated Social Policyp. 214
Social partners dialoguep. 214
Collective agreements and social agreementsp. 215
Freedom to negotiate Collective Labour Agreements as a Principle of the Labour Lawp. 215
Explicit or implicit legal recognition of the principlep. 215
Duty to negotiatep. 216
Legal Mechanism of shaping the Content of the Employment Contract via Collective Agreementp. 219
Normative Mechanismp. 219
Contractual Mechanismp. 221
Replacement of Terms of the Contract of Employment by Provisions of a Collective Agreementp. 222
Automatically/without noticep. 222
With noticep. 222
Collective Labour Agreements and Deregulation--Advantages and Disadvantagesp. 223
Statutory Limits of the Scope of Collective Labour Agreementsp. 224
Exclusion of subject-mattersp. 224
Exclusion of groups of employees or fields of employmentp. 225
Exclusion of some Employees' Groups from Collective Labour Agreement stipulated by the Partiesp. 225
Extension of a Collective Labour Agreement by a Public Authorityp. 227
Limits imposed on a Lower-level Collective Labour Agreement by a Higher-level Collective Labour Agreementp. 227
Concerning the subject matters of a lower-level collective agreementp. 228
Subordination of a lower-level collective agreement to a higher-level collective agreementp. 228
Collective Labour Agreements' Regulation and Freedom of Parties to a Contract of Employmentp. 230
Freedom to put into a Contract Provisions more favourable to an Employee than the Provisions of a Collective Agreementp. 230
Freedom to put into a Contract Provisions less favourable to an Employee than the Provisions of a Collective Agreementp. 230
Collective Labour Agreements and the Evolution of Trade Unions and Employers' Organisationsp. 231
Reduction of the application of collective labour agreements as a consequence of a decrease in trade unionismp. 231
Weakening of trade unions' bargaining power as a consequence of unemploymentp. 231
Collective Labour Agreements and other Collective Accordsp. 232
Works' agreementsp. 232
Informal collective agreements/concluded with informal employees' representationp. 233
Collective Labour Agreements in the field of Particular Employmentp. 233
Atypical contracts of employmentp. 233
Contract labour/employment not based on a contract of employmentp. 235
Evolution of the Economy and its Impact on the Application of Collective Labour Agreementsp. 236
Development of the service sector based on self-employmentp. 236
Globalization of the economy and multinational collective agreementsp. 237
Collective Agreements and Individual Contracts of Employment under Modern Labour Conditions--Swiss Reportp. 239
Characterisation of Modern Labourp. 239
Legal Consequences of the Modern Individual Employment Relationshipp. 241
The Status of Collective Labour Agreements under Present Lawp. 244
The Objectives of the Collective Labour Agreementp. 246
The Crisis of Collective Labour Lawp. 247
New Orientation of Trade Union Policyp. 249
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9789041121905
ISBN-10: 9041121900
Series: Series in Employment and Social Policy
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 272
Published: October 2003
Publisher: Kluwer Law International
Country of Publication: NL
Dimensions (cm): 23.39 x 15.6  x 1.6
Weight (kg): 0.56