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Coastal Dunes : Ecology and Conservation :  Ecology and Conservation - M. L. Martinez

Coastal Dunes : Ecology and Conservation

Ecology and Conservation

By: M. L. Martinez (Editor), N. P. Psuty (Editor)

Hardcover Published: April 2004
ISBN: 9783540408291
Number Of Pages: 388

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Coastal dunes occur in almost every latitude - from tropical to polar - and have been substantially altered by human activities. Many are already severely and irreversibly degraded. Although these ecosystems have been studied for a long time (as early as 1835), there has been a strong emphasis on the mid-latitude dune systems and a lack of attention given to the tropics where, unfortunately, much of the modern exploitation and coastal development for tourism is occurring.This book brings together coastal dune specialists from tropical and temperate latitudes, which together cover a wide set of topics, including: geomorphology, community dynamics, ecophysiology, biotic interactions and environmental problems and conservation. A major product of this book is a set of recommendations for future research, identifying relevant topics where detailed knowledge is still lacking. It also identifies management tools that will promote and maintain the rich diversity of the dune environments in the context of continuing coastal development.

From the reviews:

"This book had its origin in a session at the International Botanical Congress in Missouri (1999), when it was agreed to produce a peer-reviewed book on coastal sand dunes ... . There is a great deal of good information in this book, with each of the chapters having an extensive list of references. Gaps in knowledge are identified and recommendations made for future research. ... The book has good taxonomic and general indexes ... . Diagrams, graphs and tables are well reproduced ... ." (Janet Sprent, Bulletin of the British Ecological Society, 2005)

What Are Sand Dunes?
A Perspective on Coastal Dunesp. 3
Coastal Dunes and Their Occurrencep. 3
Relevance of Coastal Dunesp. 3
Current Conservation Statusp. 5
Aims and Scope of the Bookp. 6
Referencesp. 10
The Coastal Foredune: A Morphological Basis for Regional Coastal Dune Developmentp. 11
Conceptual Settingp. 11
Dichotomies of Inquiryp. 12
Dune Morphology Related to Sediment Supply and Dune-Beach Exchangep. 15
Continuum Scenariop. 17
River Mouth Dischargep. 18
Scenario Complexityp. 20
General Modelp. 22
Humans as a Variablep. 24
Conclusionsp. 24
Referencesp. 25
Coastal Dunes in the Tropics and Temperate Regions: Location, Formation, Morphology and Vegetation Processesp. 28
Introductionp. 28
Climatic Conditions in the Tropicsp. 28
The Location of Coastal Dunes in the Tropicsp. 30
Are There Differences Between Tropical and Temperate Coastal Dunes Types and Processes?p. 33
Foredunesp. 34
Flow Dynamics in Vegetationp. 34
Tropical Versus Temperate Foredune Trends and Morphologiesp. 35
Gross Dune-Field Morphologyp. 37
Rate of Dune-Field Vegetation Colonisation and Re-Vegetation Processesp. 39
Types of Dune-Field Vegetation Colonisation and Dune Morphologiesp. 40
Conclusionsp. 44
Referencesp. 45
The Flora and Fauna of Sand Dunes
Temperate Zone Coastal Dunesp. 53
Coastal Zone Temperate Climatesp. 53
Coastal Dunes of Western North Americap. 56
Conservation and Managementp. 60
Referencesp. 64
Vegetation Dynamics and Succession in Sand Dunes of the Eastern Coasts of Africap. 67
Introductionp. 67
Successional Change Along the Southern African Coastp. 67
Studies on Prograding Dune Fieldsp. 68
Studies on Transgressive Dune Fields and Partially Eroding Coastlinesp. 73
Studies on Rocky Shores and Eroding Coastlinesp. 76
Changes in Dune succession Dune to Aliensp. 76
The Effect of Ammophila arenaria as a Dune Pioneer on the Southern Cape coastp. 76
The Effect of Invasive Communities of Acacia cyclops in the Southern and Eastern Capep. 78
Introduction of Casuarina equisetifolia as a Dune Stabilizerp. 79
Discussionp. 80
Distinguishing the Mechanism of Succession with Indigenous Pioneersp. 80
Effects of Aliens and the Need for Dune Stabilizationp. 81
Conservation of Biodiversity and Dune Ecosystems, and Future Studiesp. 81
Referencesp. 82
Coastal Dune Slacksp. 85
Introductionp. 85
The Dune Slack Environmentp. 86
Hydrological Systemp. 86
Adaptations to Flooding and Low Nutrient Supplyp. 87
Succession in Dune Slacksp. 87
Nutrient Limitation During Successionp. 89
Seed Banks and Successionp. 89
Stability of Pioneer Stagesp. 92
Disturbances in Ecosystem Functioningp. 95
Restoration of Dune Slacksp. 97
Referencesp. 99
Coastal Dune Forest Rehabilitation: A Case Study on Rodent and Bird Assemblages in Northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africap. 103
Introductionp. 103
Study Areap. 104
Indian Ocean Coastal Dunesp. 104
The Coastal Sand Dune Forests of KwaZulu-Natalp. 104
The Post-Mining Rehabilitation ofCoastal Dunesp. 105
Materials and Methodsp. 107
Rodentsp. 107
Birdsp. 107
Results and Discussionp. 108
Rodentsp. 108
Birdsp. 112
Conclusionsp. 113
Referencesp. 114
Living in a Stressful Environment
Burial of Plants as a Selective Force in Sand Dunesp. 119
Introductionp. 119
Storm Damage ofForedunes-A Case Historyp. 120
Returnp. 121
Re-Establishmentp. 123
A Conceptual Model of Plant Response to Burialp. 124
Post-Burial Responses ofPlantsp. 125
Seeds and Seed Bankp. 125
Seedlingsp. 127
Adult Plantsp. 128
Plant Communitiesp. 128
Burial-The Primary Cause ofZonationp. 129
Degeneration Responsep. 130
Stimulation Responsep. 131
Summaryp. 132
Referencesp. 133
Physiological Characteristics of Coastal Dune Pioneer Species from the Eastern Cape, South Africa, in Relation to Stress and Disturbancep. 137
Introductionp. 137
A Conceptual Model of Resource Limitation and Plant Performancep. 138
Study Site, Species and Parameters Measuredp. 140
Water Relationsp. 141
Mineral Nutrientsp. 144
Photosynthetic Characteristicsp. 144
Growth Ratesp. 146
Stress and Disturbancep. 150
Conclusionsp. 152
Referencesp. 153
Plant Functional Types in Coastal Dune Habitatsp. 155
Plant Functional Typesp. 155
Dune Habitats as Environmental Islandsp. 157
Adverse Interactionsp. 159
Some Examples of Application of Plant FTs to Dune Vegetation Analysisp. 159
Dune Habitat Confinementp. 164
Conclusionsp. 166
Referencesp. 167
Biotic Interactions
Arbuscular Mycorrhizas in Coastal Dunesp. 173
Introductionp. 173
Life History of AM Fungi in Sand Dunesp. 174
AM Fungi in Sand Dunesp. 176
Seasonality ofAM Fungi in Sand Dunesp. 177
Effects ofArbuscular Mycorrhizas on the Establishment and Growth of Sand Dune Plantsp. 178
Arbuscular Mycorrhizas and Sand Dune Successionp. 181
Arbuscular Mycorrhizas in Sand Dune Restoration and Stabilizationp. 183
Referencesp. 184
The Role ofAlgal Mats on Community Succession in Dunes and Dune Slacksp. 189
Introductionp. 189
Hydrological Dynamics of Slacks in Coastal Dune Systemsp. 89
Algal Communities in Slacks and Other Coastal Zonesp. 90
The Role of Algae During Primary Successionp. 193
A Study Case on the Gulf of Mexicop. 197
Importance ofAlgae for Slack Conservationp. 200
Conclusionsp. 201
Referencesp. 202
Plant-Plant Interactions in Coastal Dunesp. 205
Introductionp. 205
Facilitationp. 207
Competitionp. 209
Grass Encroachmentp. 210
Invasive Plantsp. 212
Epiphytesp. 213
Non-Parasitesp. 213
Parasitesp. 216
Conclusionsp. 217
Referencesp. 218
Ant-Plant Interactions: Their Seasonal Variation and Effects on Plant Fitnessp. 221
Importance of Interspecific Interactionsp. 221
Richness and Seasonal Variation of Ant-Plant Interactionsp. 222
Importance of Nectar to Ants in Tropical Seasonal Environmentsp. 225
Effect of Ants on Plant Fitnessp. 227
Myrmecophylla (Schomburgkia tibicinis) christinae (Orchidaceae)p. 229
Paullinia fuscescens (Sapindaceae)p. 231
Opuntia stricta (Cactaceae)p. 232
Turnera ulmifolia (Turneraceae)p. 234
Conclusionp. 235
Referencesp. 236
Environmental Problems and Conservation
Environmental Problems and Restoration Measures in Coastal Dunes in the Netherlandp. 243
Introductionp. 243
Differences Between Renodunaal and Wadden Districtsp. 244
Impact of Availability of P on Biomass Production and Successional Trendsp. 245
Renodunaal Districtp. 245
Wadden Districtp. 247
Effect of Mineralization of Nitrogenp. 247
Impact of Litter Productionp. 247
Impact ofLitter Decompositionp. 249
Role of Ammophila arenaria in the Wadden Districtp. 250
Restorationp. 250
Effect ofGrazing and Annual Mowingp. 251
Effect of Sod Cuttingp. 253
Effect ofIncreased Aeolian Activityp. 254
Concluding Remarksp. 255
Referencesp. 256
The Costs of our Coasts: Examples of Dynamic Dune Management from Western Europep. 259
Introductionp. 259
Coastal Dunes: Dynamic Systems and Managementp. 259
Examples from Western Europe: England and The Netherlandsp. 261
The Sefton Coast (England)p. 262
Areap. 262
Managementp. 263
The Sefton Coast in the 21st Centuryp. 264
Recreationp. 266
Visitor Researchp. 266
Visitor Typologyp. 266
Costs ofManagementp. 267
The Meijendel Dunes (The Netherlands)p. 268
Areap. 268
Management by the Dunewater Companyp. 269
Recreation: Better Possibilities for People to Enjoy Naturep. 269
Meijendel and the Production of Drinking Waterp. 272
Development ofa Natural Core Areap. 272
Costs ofManagementp. 274
Visitors Appraisalp. 275
Dune Management in a Changing Societyp. 275
Referencesp. 276
Animal Life in Sand Dunes: From Exploitation and Prosecution to Protection and Monitoringp. 279
Introductionp. 279
Cropping Stock and Game: The Medieval Sand Dunes as a Store of Animal Goodsp. 280
Nature Conservation Starts with Bird Protectionp. 281
The Complexity of Biotic Interactionsp. 284
Coastal Zone Management: Can Animals be Integrated? 290 Referencesp. 293
Coastal Vegetation as Indicators for Conservationp. 297
Introductionp. 297
Environmental Indicatorsp. 297
Ecological Indicatorsp. 298
Methodsp. 301
Ecological Indicators Selectionp. 301
Calculation ofEcological Indicatorsp. 304
Resultsp. 306
Environmental Indicators for the Region (Landscape-Scale Indicators)p. 306
Ecological Indicators for Coastal Dunes (Plant-Community Scale)p. 306
Discussion and Conclusionp. 309
Appendix: Floristic List of Northern Baja California Coastal Sand Dune Systemsp. 311
Referencesp. 316
A Case Study ofConservation and Management of Tropical Sand Dune Systems: La Mancha-El Llanop. 319
Introductionp. 319
Dune Conservation and Managementp. 319
Beach and Dune Biodiversity and Protected Areas in Mexico 320
Community Management for the Conservation of Coastal Resources: La Mancha-El Llano Case Studyp. 325
Referencesp. 332
European Coastal Dunes: Ecological Values, Threats, Opportunities and Policy Developmentp. 335
Introductionp. 335
Distribution of Coastal Dunes along Europe's Coast: A Short Geographyp. 336
Ecological Values Related to Biodiversityp. 338
Trends, Threats and Opportunitiesp. 340
Agriculture: Intensification as well as Marginalizationp. 340
Urbanisation, Industries, Harbour Developmentp. 340
Infrastructurep. 341
Tourism/Recreationp. 341
Forestryp. 342
Coastal Processes, Climate Change and Sea Level Rise, Aeolian Processesp. 342
Coastal Defence Worksp. 343
Policy Analysis of Dune Conservation in Europep. 343
Bern Conventionp. 344
EU Policyp. 344
National Policiesp. 346
SWOT Analysisp. 347
Conclusionsp. 347
EU Countriesp. 347
Accession Countriesp. 349
Non-EU Countriesp. 349
Recommendationsp. 349
Referencesp. 350
The Coastal Dune Paradox: Conservation vs Exploitation?
The Fragility and Conservation of the World's Coastal Dunes: Geomorphological, Ecological and Socioeconomic Perspectivesp. 355
Current Worldwide Status of Coastal Dunesp. 355
Current Research Trends (What Do We Know?)p. 356
Variable Morphologiesp. 356
Successionp. 357
Adaptationsp. 358
Tropical vs. Mid-Latitudesp. 359
Fragile Ecosystems?p. 361
Management Practicesp. 361
Future Trends and Perspectivesp. 364
Referencesp. 367
Taxonomic Indexp. 371
Subject Index
Table of Contents provided by Publisher. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9783540408291
ISBN-10: 3540408290
Series: Ecological Studies
Audience: General
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 388
Published: April 2004
Publisher: Springer-Verlag Berlin and Heidelberg Gmbh & Co. Kg
Country of Publication: DE
Dimensions (cm): 23.5 x 15.5  x 3.18
Weight (kg): 0.86