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Clinical Electrophysiology of the Somatosensory Cortex : A Combined Study Using Electrocorticography, Scalp-EEG and Magnetoencephalography - Christoph Baumgartner

Clinical Electrophysiology of the Somatosensory Cortex : A Combined Study Using Electrocorticography, Scalp-EEG and Magnetoencephalography

Paperback ISBN: 9783211823910
Number Of Pages: 198

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The clinical electrophysiology of the human somatosensory cortex was investigated with a combined approach using cortical stimulations and somatosensory evoked responses on electrocorticography, scalp-EEG, and magnetoencephalography, a new neurophysiological technique. The spatiotemporal structure of the evoked response was studied with novel biophysical modeling techniques which allowed identification of the three-dimensional intracerebral location, time activity, and interaction of the neuronal sources in human somatosensory cortex. Thus, new aspects on the functional anatomy of the human somatosensory cortex could be elicited. Furthermore, the somatotopy of the hand somatosensory cortex was investigated. Clinically, the results of comparison of the different techniques can improve the non-invasive localization criteria for primary motor and somatosensory cortex which is important in patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures adjacent to central fissure.

1. Introduction.- 1.1. Functional Anatomy of Human Somatosensory Cortex.- 1.1.1. Clinical Importance.- 1.1.2. Methods to Study Functional Anatomy of Human Somatosensory Cortex.- 1.1.2.1. Direct Cortical Stimulations.- 1.1.2.2. Somatosensory Evoked Potentials on Electrocorticography.- 1.1.2.3. Somatosensory Evoked Potentials on Scalp-EEG.- 1.1.2.4. Somatosensory Evoked Fields on Magnetoencephalography.- 1.1.3. The Neuronal Sources of Somatosensory Evoked Responses.- 1.2. Somatotopy of Human Somatosensory Cortex.- 1.2.1. Current Concepts Concerning the Somatotopic Organization of Somatosensory Cortex.- 1.2.2. Clinical Importance.- 1.2.3. Methods to Study Somatotopy of Human Somatosensory Cortex.- 1.2.3.1. Direct Cortical Stimulations.- 1.2.3.2. Somatosensory Evoked Potentials on Electrocorticography.- 1.2.3.3. Somatosensory Evoked Potentials on Scalp-EEG.- 1.2.3.4. Somatosensory Evoked Fields on Magnetoencephalography.- 2. General Methodology.- 2.1. Neurogenesis of ECoG, Scalp-EEG, and MEG.- 2.2. Biophysical Laws of EEG and MEG.- 2.2.1. Forward and Inverse Problem.- 2.2.2. Assumptions Concerning the Current Sources.- 2.2.3. Assumptions Concerning the Volume Conductor.- 2.2.4. Practical Outline of Dipole Modeling.- 2.3. Magnetoencephalography - Basic Concepts.- 2.3.1. Basic Principles of the Procedure.- 2.3.2. Instrumentation.- 2.3.3. Magnetic Shielding.- 2.3.4. Differences Between Scalp-EEG and MEG.- 2.4. Cortical Stimulations.- 2.4.1. Subdural Grid Electrodes.- 2.4.2. Stimulus Parameters.- 2.4.3. Neurophysiological Effects of Cortical Stimulations.- 2.4.4. General Testing Procedure.- 3. Spatiotemporal Modeling on ECoG, Scalp-EEG, and MEG.- 3.1. Motivation.- 3.2. Simulation Study.- 3.3. Basic Goals of Spatiotemporal Modeling.- 3.4. Principal Component Analysis.- 3.4.1. Introduction.- 3.4.2. Methods.- 3.5. Combination of Principal Component Analysis and Biophysical Modeling.- 3.6. Multiple Dipole Modeling.- 3.6.1. Introduction.- 3.6.2. Methods.- 3.6.2.1. Forward Problem.- 3.6.2.2. Inverse Problem.- 3.7. Practical Outline of Spatiotemporal Modeling.- 3.8. Spatiotemporal Modeling as Outlined on Two Typical Examples.- 3.8.1. Modeling of Somatosensory Evoked Magnetic Fields.- 3.8.2. Modeling of the Human Epileptic Spike Complex.- 3.9. Limitations of the Procedure.- 3.9.1. Limitations of Principal Component Analysis.- 3.9.2. Limitations of Multiple Dipole Modeling.- 4. Functional Anatomy of Human Somatosensory Cortex.- 4.1. Methods.- 4.1.1. Cortical Stimulations - Median Nerve Somatosensory Evoked Potentials on Electrocorticography.- 4.1.1.1. Patients.- 4.1.1.2. Cortical Stimulations.- 4.1.1.3. Somatosensory Evoked Potentials on Electrocorticography.- 4.1.1.4. Correlation of Neuroelectric and Anatomical Data.- 4.1.1.5. Data Analysis.- 4.1.2. Median Nerve Somatosensory Evoked Potentials on Scalp-EEG.- 4.1.2.1. Subjects and Procedures.- 4.1.2.2. Correlation of Neuroelectric and Anatomical Data.- 4.1.2.3. Data Analysis.- 4.1.3. Median Nerve Somatosensory Evoked Fields on Magnetoencephalography.- 4.1.3.1. Subjects and Procedures.- 4.1.3.2. Correlation of Neuromagnetic and Anatomical Data.- 4.1.3.3. Data Analysis.- 4.2. Results.- 4.2.1. Cortical Stimulations - Median Nerve Somatosensory Evoked Potentials on Electrocorticography.- 4.2.1.1. Cortical Stimulations.- 4.2.1.2. Somatosensory Evoked Potentials - Data.- 4.2.1.3. Number of Sources.- 4.2.1.4. Results of Spatiotemporal Modeling.- 4.2.1.5. Results of Selected Patients.- 4.2.2. Median Nerve Somatosensory Evoked Potentials on Scalp-EEG.- 4.2.2.1. Data.- 4.2.2.2. Number of Sources.- 4.2.2.3. Results of Spatiotemporal Modeling.- 4.2.2.4. Results of Selected Subjects.- 4.2.3. Median Nerve Somatosensory Evoked Fields on Magnetoencephalography.- 4.2.3.1. Data.- 4.2.3.2. Number of Sources.- 4.2.3.3. Results of Spatiotemporal Modeling.- 4.2.3.4. Results of Selected Subjects.- 4.2.4. Comparison of ECoG, Scalp-EEG, and MEG.- 4.2.4.1. Comparison of the Raw Data for the Subjects as a Group.- 4.2.4.2. Comparison of Spatiotemporal Modeling for the Subjects as a Group.- 4.2.4.3. Comparison of ECoG and Scalp-EEG in a Selected Patient.- 4.2.4.4. Comparison of Scalp-EEG and MEG in a Selected Subject.- 4.3. Discussion.- 4.3.1. Cortical Stimulations - Median Nerve Somatosensory Evoked Potentials on Electrocorticography.- 4.3.1.1. Cortical Stimulations.- 4.3.1.2. Data.- 4.3.1.3. Source Localization Techniques.- 4.3.1.4. Spatiotemporal Modeling.- 4.3.1.5. The Neuronal Sources Underlying SEPs.- 4.3.1.6. Limitations of the Procedure.- 4.3.2. Median Nerve Somatosensory Evoked Potentials on Scalp-EEG.- 4.3.2.1. Data.- 4.3.2.2. Source Localization Techniques.- 4.3.2.3. Spatiotemporal Modeling.- 4.3.2.4. Neuronal Sources Underlying SEPs.- 4.3.2.5. Limitations of the Procedure.- 4.3.3. Median Nerve Somatosensory Evoked Fields on Magnetoencephalography.- 4.3.3.1. Data.- 4.3.3.2. Spatiotemporal Modeling.- 4.3.3.3. The Neuronal Sources Underlying SEFs.- 4.3.3.4. Functional Organization of Human Somatosensory Cortex.- 4.3.4. Comparison of ECoG, Scalp-EEG, and MEG.- 4.3.4.1. Comparison of ECoG and Scalp-EEG.- 4.3.4.2. Comparison of Scalp-EEG and MEG.- 4.3.4.3. Localization Accuracy of Scalp-EEG and MEG.- 4.3.4.4. Additional Information Revealed by Scalp-EEG and MEG.- 4.3.5. Considerations Concerning the Model.- 4.3.5.1. The Dipole Concept.- 4.3.5.2. Spatiotemporal Modeling - Modeling Assumptions and Neurophysiological Considerations.- 4.3.5.3. Spatiotemporal Modeling-Mathematical and Computational Considerations.- 4.3.6. Neurogenesis of the Human Somatosensory Evoked Response.- 4.3.6.1. The Primary Evoked Response.- 4.3.6.2. Neurogenesis of the N20-P30 Component-Activity Attributed to Area 3b.- 4.3.6.3. Neurogenesis of the P25-N35 Component-Activity Attributed to Area 1.- 5. Somatotopy of Human Somatosensory Cortex.- 5.1. Methods.- 5.1.1. Somatotopy as Studied with Cortical Stimulations and Somatosensory Evoked Potentials on Electrocorticography.- 5.1.1.1. Patients.- 5.1.1.2. Cortical Stimulations.- 5.1.1.3. Somatosensory Evoked Potentials Recorded on Electrocorticography.- 5.1.1.4. Correlation of Neuroelectric and Anatomical Data.- 5.1.1.5. Data Analysis.- 5.1.2. Somatotopy as Studied on Scalp-EEG.- 5.1.2.1. Subjects and Procedures.- 5.1.2.2. Correlation of Neuroelectric and Anatomical Data.- 5.1.2.3. Data Analysis.- 5.1.3. Somatotopy as Studied on Magnetoencephalography.- 5.1.3.1. Subjects and Procedures.- 5.1.3.2. Correlation of Neuromagnetic and Anatomical Data.- 5.1.3.3. Data Analysis.- 5.2. Results.- 5.2.1. Somatotopy as Studied with Cortical Stimulations and Somatosensory Evoked Potentials on Electrocorticography.- 5.2.1.1. Cortical Stimulations.- 5.2.1.2. Somatosensory Evoked Potentials - Data.- 5.2.1.3. Isopotential Maps for Median and Ulnar Nerve SEPs.- 5.2.1.4. Isopotential Maps for Digit SEPs.- 5.2.1.5. Isopotential Maps for Lip SEPs.- 5.2.1.6. Cortical Hand and Digit Representation.- 5.2.1.7. Cortical Lip Representation in Relation to Hand Representation.- 5.2.2. Somatotopy as Studied on Scalp-EEG.- 5.2.2.1. Data.- 5.2.2.2. Isopotential Maps for Median and Ulnar Nerve SEPs.- 5.2.2.3. Isopotential Maps for Digit SEPs.- 5.2.2.4. Cortical Hand and Digit Representation.- 5.2.3. Somatotopy as Studied on Magnetoencephalography.- 5.2.3.1. Data.- 5.2.3.2. Isofield Maps for Median, Ulnar Nerve and Digit SEFs.- 5.2.3.3. Cortical Hand and Digit Representation.- 5.2.4. Comparison of ECoG, Scalp-EEG, and MEG.- 5.2.4.1. General Comparison.- 5.2.4.2. Comparison of Somatotopy on ECoG and Scalp-EEG in a Selected Patient.- 5.2.4.3. Comparison of Somatotopy on Scalp-EEG and MEG in Two Selected Subjects.- 5.3. Discussion.- 5.3.1. Somatotopy as Studied with Cortical Stimulations and Somatosensory Evoked Potentials on Electrocorticography.- 5.3.1.1. Cortical Stimulations.- 5.3.1.2. Somatosensory Evoked Potentials - Data.- 5.3.1.3. Isopotential Maps.- 5.3.1.4. Somatotopy of Human Hand Somatosensory Cortex 151 5.3.1.5. Neuronal Sources in Human Hand Somatosensory Cortex.- 5.3.1.6. Somatotopy and Neuronal Sources of Lip Somatosensory Cortex.- 5.3.2. Somatotopy as Studied on Scalp-EEG.- 5.3.2.1. Data.- 5.3.2.2. Isopotential Maps.- 5.3.2.3. Somatotopy of Human Hand Somatosensory Cortex 157 5.3.2.4. Neuronal Sources in Human Hand Somatosensory Cortex.- 5.3.3. Somatotopy as Studied on Magnetoencephalography.- 5.3.3.1. Data.- 5.3.3.2. Isofield Maps.- 5.3.3.3. Somatotopy of Human Hand Somatosensory Cortex 162 5.3.3.4. Neuronal Sources in Human Hand.- Somatosensory Cortex.- 5.3.4. Comparison of ECoG, Scalp-EEG, and MEG.- 6. Clinical Implications.- 7. Summary.- 8. List of Abbreviations.- 9. References.

ISBN: 9783211823910
ISBN-10: 3211823913
Audience: General
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 198
Publisher: SPRINGER VERLAG GMBH
Country of Publication: AT
Dimensions (cm): 23.39 x 15.6  x 1.14
Weight (kg): 0.3