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Classical Marble : Geochemistry, Technology, Trade - Norman Herz

Classical Marble

Geochemistry, Technology, Trade

By: Norman Herz (Editor), Marc Waelkens (Editor)

Hardcover

Published: 30th September 1988
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Marble in Ancient Greece and Rome: Geology, Quarries, Commerce, Artifacts Marble remains the sine qua non raw material of the an- cient Greeks and Romans. Beginning in the Bronze Age sculptu- re began in marble and throughout classical times the most im- portant statues, reliefs, monuments and inscriptions were made of it. Yet, quarry sources changed in time as preferences for different marbles were influenced by local traditions, the pos- sibilities of transport, esthetic tastes, and economics. Marble studies and the identification of the provenance of marble can thus reveal much about Greek and Roman history, trade, esthe- tics and technology. Persons in many disciplines are studying various aspects of Greek and Roman marble usage. Geologists and geochemists are working on methods to determine the provenance of marble; ar- chaeologists are noting changing patterns of import and use in excavation~ and discovering how improving quarrying techniques and prelimihary dressing of the extracted material influenced the final shape of artifacts; ancient historians are now under- standing quarry organization and bureaucracies that controlled marble production and trade; art historians are seeing how phy- sical characteristics of the stone affected the techniques and style of sculpture; architects and engineers are interested in quarry technologies and usage in building construction. These specialists drawn from many disciplines rarely have an opportu- nity to compare notes and see how each can contribute to the research effort of others.

Introductory Chapters.- J.B. Ward-Perkins and the Marble Committee.- Geology of Greece and Turkey: Potential Marble Source Regions.- Quarries and the Marble Trade in Antiquity.- Quarries and Quarrying Technology.- Extraction of Blocks in Antiquity: Special Methods of Analysis.- Problems of Identification and Interpretation of Tool Marks on Ancient Marbles and Decorative Stones.- Methods of Transporting Blocks in Antiquity.- The Quarries of Mount Taygetos in the Peloponnesos, Greece.- Marmora Lunensia: Quarrying Technology and Archeological Use.- The Geology, Quarrying Technology and Use of Beylerkoy Marbles in Western Turkey.- Numidian Marble and Some of its Specialities.- The Roman Quarries of Mons Claudianus, Egypt an Interim Report.- Ancient Granite Quarries on the Bocche di Bonifacio.- Preliminary Dressing of Extracted Material.- The Stages of Workmanship of the Corinthian Capital in Proconnesus and its Export Form.- The Marble Architectural Elements in Export-Form from the ?ile Shipwreck.- Production Patterns of Sarcophagi in Phrygia.- Trade and Archaeological Use of Marble.- The Roman Emperors in the Marble Business: Capitalists, Middlemen or Philanthropists?.- Marble in Cyprus: Classical Times to Middle Ages.- Marble Imports and Local Stone in the Architectural Decoration of Roman Palestine: Marble Trade, Techniques and Artistical Taste.- The Introduction of Polychrome Marbles in Late Republican Rome: The Evidence from Mosaic Pavements with Marble Insertions.- The Marbles Used in the Decoration of Hadrian's Villa at Tivoli.- From West to East: Evidence for a Shift in the Balance of Trade in White Marbles.- Relationships between Style and Size of Statuary and the Availability of Marble at Cyrene.- Acrolithic or Pseudo-Acrolithic Sculpture of the Mature Classical Greek Period in the Archaeological Museum of the Johns Hopkins University.- Material Limitations and Exotic Materials in the Copying of a Hellenistic Statuary Type.- Marble Veneer from an Urban Archaeological Site in Naples: A Case Study.- Techniques for Determining Provenance: Multivariate Petrographical and Chemical Approaches.- Weathering Characteristics, Age, and Provenance Determinations on Ancient Greek and Roman Marble Artifacts.- A Multi-Method Approach to the Identification of White Marbles Used in Antique Artifacts.- Provenance Characteristics of Cycladic (Paros and Naxos) Marbles - A Multivariate Geological Approach.- Chemical and Petrographical Characterization of Greek Marbles from Pentelikon, Naxos, Paros and Thasos.- Techniques for Determining Provenance: Trace Element Analysis.- Provenance Studies of Greek Marbles by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis.- A Computer-Based Pattern Recognition Approach to the Provenance Study of Mediterranean Marbles Through Trace Elements Analysis.- Neutron Activation Analysis: A Powerful Technique in Provenance Studies.- Techniques for Determining Provenance: Stable Isotope Analysis.- The Oxygen and Carbon Isotopic Data Base for Classical Marble.- Geochemistry and Archaeological Geology of the Carrara Marble, Carrara, Italy.- Variations in Stable Isotopic Compositions of Marble: An Assessment of Causes.- Variability in Stable Isotope Analysis: Implications for Joining Fragments.- Statistical Treatment of Stable Isotope Data.- Techniques for Determining Provenance: Xeroradiography, ESR Spectroscopy, X-Ray Powder Diffractometry, and Pore-Size Distribution.- Marble Provenience by Computer-Assisted Analysis of Xeroradiographs.- ESR Spectroscopy and X-Ray Powder Diffractometry for Marble Provenance Determination.- The Interest of Pore-Size Distribution in the Identification of Marbles - Suction Tests.- Provenance Determination Applied to Ancient Artifacts.- Source Analysis of the Raw Materials of Four Classical Marble Sculptures Using Chemical, Microscopic and Isotopic Criteria.- Determination of the Provenance of Marbles Used in Some Ancient Monuments in Rome.- The Arch of Constantine: Marble Samples.- Isotopic Analysis of Seventh-Century B.C. Perirrhanteria.- The Use of Marble Analysis in Collections of Ancient Sculpture: Some Examples from the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek.- Provenance Investigation of Marbles from Delphi with ESR Spectroscopy.- Marble Samples from the Arch of Constantine in Rome: Results of Electron Spin Resonance and Atomic Emission Analysis.- Decay and Conservation.- The Decay and Conservation of Marbles on Archaeological Monuments.- A Computerised System for the Study and Conservation of Opus Sectile Pavements.

ISBN: 9789024737932
ISBN-10: 9024737931
Series: Nato Science Series E:
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 482
Published: 30th September 1988
Publisher: Springer
Country of Publication: NL
Dimensions (cm): 23.5 x 15.5  x 2.6
Weight (kg): 1.94