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Chronic and Acute Leukemias in Adults : Developments in Nephrology - Clara D. Bloomfield

Chronic and Acute Leukemias in Adults

Developments in Nephrology

By: Clara D. Bloomfield (Editor)

Hardcover Published: December 2009
ISBN: 9780898387025
Number Of Pages: 358

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Where do you begin to look for a recent, authoritative article on the diagnosis or management of a particular malignancy? The few general on- cology textbooks are generally out of date. Single papers in specialized jour- nals are informative but seldom comprehensive; these are more often pre- liminary reports on a very limited number of patients. Certain general jour- nals frequently publish good indepth reviews of cancer topics, and published symposium lectures are often the best overviews available. Unfortunately, these reviews and supplements appear sporadically, and the reader can nev- er be sure when a topic of special interest will be covered. Cancer Treatment and Research is a series of authoritative volumes which aim to meet this need. It is an attempt to establish a critical mass of oncology literature covering virtually all oncology topics, revised frequently to keep the coverage up to date, easily available on a single library shelf or by a single personal subscription. We have approached the problem in the following fashion. First, by di- viding the oncology literature into specific subdivisions such as lung cancer, genitourinary cancer, pediatric oncology, etc. Second,. by asking eminent authorities in each of these areas to edit a volume on the specific topic on an annual or biannual basis. Each topic and tumor type is covered in a volume appearing frequently and predictably, discussing current diagnosis, staging, markers, all forms of treatment modalities, basic biology, and more.

`...these essays serve as well-referenced reviews of subjects on which the reader is not an expert, so condensing many a literature search... a good investment for academic institutions.' N.T.J. O'Connor, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford `This book will be of particular interest to oncologists and hematologists who specialize in the treatment of leukemia. ...the best resource available on the study and treatment of leukemias.' The New England Journal of Medicine (March 1986)

1. Retroviruses and Onc Genes in Human Leukemias and Lymphomas.- 1.1 Introduction.- 1.2 Onc Genes in Leukemogenesis.- 1.2.1 Introduction.- 1.2.2 Retroviral Derived Cellular Onc Genes.- 1.2.2.1 Genetic Structure of Defective, Acutely Transforming Viruses.- 1.2.2.2 Cellular Origin of the Retroviral Transforming Genes.- 1.2.2.3 Cloning and Properties of the Human Homologues of Retroviral Onc Genes.- 1.2.2.4 Studies of Expression of the Human Homologues of the Viral Onc Genes in Leukemias and Lymphomas.- 1.2.2.5 Amplification as a Mechanism of Activation of Cellular Onc Genes.- 1.2.2.6 Correlation of Onc Gene Localization with Chromosomal Translocations.- 1.2.3 Potential Transformation Genes Detected by Transfection Techniques.- 1.2.3.1 Use of Transfection Techniques to Detect Potential Activated Transforming Genes.- 1.2.3.2 Detection of Activated Ras Onc Gene Family Members by Use of the NIH 3T3 Transfection System.- 1.2.3.3 Detection of an Activated Gene Related to Transferrin in Avian Bursal Lymphomas.- 1.2.3.4 Multiple Genetic Alterations are Required to Transform Normal Diploid Cell Lines that are not Immortalized.- 1.2.3.5 Future Directions in Use of Transfection Systems for Detection of Activated Transforming Genes.- 1.3 Retroviruses in Human Leukemia-Lymphoma.- 1.3.1 Background Considerations.- 1.3.2 Growth of Mature Human T-Cells Growth Factor (TCGF) and the Isolation of the First Human Retroviruses (HTLV).- 1.3.3 Seroepidemiology of HTLV.- 1.3.3.1 Characteristics of HTLV Associated Diseases.- 1.3.3.2 Antibodies to HTLV in the Normal Population and Healthy Relatives of ATL Patients.- 1.3.4 Molecular Epidemiology of HTLV-Related Diseases.- 1.3.5 In Vitro Transformation of Normal Cold Blood T-cells by HTLV.- 1.3.6 Possible Mechanisms for HTLV Transformation.- Acknowledgements.- References.- 2. Study of Differentiation and Proliferation of Leukemic Cells Using Myeloid Leukemia Cell Lines.- 2.1 Introduction: Establishment of Human Myeloid Leukemia Cell Lines.- 2.2 Human Erythroleukemia Cell Lines.- 2.3 Study of Granulocyte Differentiation Using Myeloid Leukemic Cell Lines.- 2.3.1 Nonphysiological Inducers of Granulocyte differentiation.- 2.3.2 Physiological Inducers of Granulocyte Differentiation of HL-60 Cells.- 2.3.2.1 Differentiation Inducing factor.- 2.3.2.2 Retinoids.- 2.3.2.3 Vitamin D Metabolites.- 2.3.2.4 Miscellaneous Physiological Inducers of Myeloid Leukemia Differentiation.- 2.3.3 Therapeutic Implications of Inducers of Granulocyte Differentiation of HL-60.- 2.4 Induction of Macrophage-Like Differentiation of Human Acute Myelogenous Cells.- 2.4.1 Phorbol Diesters.- 2.4.2 Teleocidins.- 2.5 Genetic Analysis of Myeloid Differentiation.- 2.6 Hormonal Modulation of Leukemic Cell Growth.- 2.7 An In Vitro Model for Chemotherapy of Acute Myelogenous Leukemia.- 2.8 Conclusion.- Acknowledgements.- References.- 3. Biological Markers in Lymphoproliferative Disorders.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Immunological Markers.- 3.2.1 Conventional B and T Markers.- 3.2.2 McAb to B-Cell Antigens.- 3.2.3 McAb Reactive with B and T cells.- 3.2.4 McAb to T-Cell Antigens.- 3.2.5 McAb to Cell'Specific'Antigens.- 3.2.6 T-Functional Assays.- 3.2.7 B-Cell Differentiation In Vitro.- 3.3 Chronic B-Cell Malignancies.- 3.3.1 B-Cell Lymphocytic Leukemia (B-CLL).- 3.3.2 B-Prolymphocytic Leukemia (B-PLL).- 3.3.3 Hairy Cell Leukemia (HCL).- 3.3.4 Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas (NHL).- 3.3.5 Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma (LPL).- 3.4 Chronic T-Cell Malignancies.- 3.4.1 T-Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (T-CLL).- 3.4.2 T-Prolymphocytic Leukemia (T-PLL).- 3.4.3 Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphomas (CTCL).- 3.4.4 Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma (ATTL).- 3.5 Cytochemistry of Acid Hydrolases.- 3.5.1 Acid Phosphatase (AP).- 3.5.2 Alpha-Naphthyl Acetate Esterase (ANAE).- 3.5.3 Dipeptidylaminopeptidase IV (DAP IV).- 3.5.4 Other Acid Hydrolases.- 3.6 Chromosomes.- 3.6.1 Abnormalities in B-CLL.- 3.6.2 Abnormalities in B-PLL.- 3.6.3 Abnormalities in HCL.- 3.6.4 Abnormalities in NHL.- 3.6.5 Abnormalities in T-Cell Leukemias and CTCL.- 3.7 Conclusions.- Acknowledgements.- References.- 4. Surface Marker Analysis of Acute Myeloblasts Leukemia.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Differentiation of Normal Myeloid Cells.- 4.3 Detection of Myeloid-Lineage Antigens by Heteroantisera.- 4.4 Production of Monoclonal Antibodies to Myeloid Cell Surface Antigens.- 4.5 Monoclonal Antibodies Reactive with Human AML Cells.- 4.5.1 B4.3, B13.9, B2.12.- 4.5.2 B9.8, B13.4, B34.3, B43.4.- 4.5.3 D5.- 4.5.4 D5D6.- 4.5.5 5F1.- 4.5.6 FMC10, FMC11, FMC12, FMC13.- 4.5.7 1G10.- 4.5.8 80H1, 80H3, 80H5.- 4.5.9 L4F3.- 4.5.10 MMA.- 4.5.11 Mo1.- 4.5.12 Mo2.- 4.5.13 Mo3.- 4.5.14 Mo4.- 4.5.15 Mo5.- 4.5.16 My-1.- 4.5.17 My3, My4.- 4.5.18 My7.- 4.5.19 My8.- 4.5.20 My9.- 4.5.21 My10.- 4.5.22 PMN6, PMN29, PM81, and AML-2-23.- 4.5.23 TG1.- 4.5.24 UCHM1, UCHALF.- 4.6 Expression of Myeloid Differentiation Antigens on AML Cells.- 4.6.1 Expression of Myeloid Differentiation Antigens on Cultured Human Myeloid Cell Lines.- 4.6.2 Expression of Myeloid Antigens on Cells From Acute Myeloblasts Leukemia Patients.- 4.6.3 Use of Myeloid Monoclonal Antibodies to Identify Subgroups of AML.- 4.7 Future Directions.- References.- 5. Classification of 358 Cases of Acute Myeloid Leukemia by FAB Criteria: Analysis of Clinical and Morphologic Features.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.2 Clinical and Morphologic Characteristics of the FAB Classes.- 5.2.1 FAB-M1: Acute Myeloid Leukemia Without Maturation.- 5.2.2 FAB-M2: Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Maturation.- 5.2.3 FAB-M3: Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia.- 5.2.4 FAB-M4: Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia.- 5.2.5 FAB-M5A: Acute Monocytic Leukemia Poorly Differentiated (Monoblastic).- 5.2.6 FAB-M5B: Acute Monocytic Leukemia with Differentiation.- 5.2.7 FAB-M6: Erythroleukemia.- 5.3 Comparison of FAB Classes of AML.- 5.3.1 Age and Sex Distribution.- 5.3.2 Clinical and Laboratory Findings.- 5.3.3 Morphologic Findings.- 5.3.4 Survival.- 5.4 Discussion.- References.- 6. Chemosensitivity of In Vitro Colony Forming Units as a Predictor of Response to Antileukemic Drugs.- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.2 Colony Assays.- 6.2.1 General Features.- 6.2.2 Colony Assay of Blasts in Acute Myelogenous Leukemia.- 6.2.3 Colony Assay of Blasts in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.- 6.3 Quantitation of Sensitivity to Antileukemic Drugs.- 6.3.1 In Vitro Clonogenic Assays of Drug Sensitivities.- 6.3.2 Differential Sensitivities of Normal and Leukemic Colony Forming Units.- 6.3.3 Effects of Drugs on Capacity for Self-Renewal.- 6.3.4 What is a 'Drug Resistant' L-CFU?.- 6.4 Correlations Between In Vitro Chemosensitivities of L-CFU and Clinical Response of the Patient.- 6.4.1 Clinical Drug Resistance.- 6.4.2 Drug Resistance and Treatment Failure.- 6.4.3 L-CFU Assays and Clinical Trails.- 6.4.4 L-CFU Growth In Vitro and Outcome of Therapy.- 6.4.5 Chemosensitivities of L-CFU In Vitro and Outcome of Therapy.- 6.5 Summary.- References.- 7. Post-Remission Therapy for Acute Myelogenous Leukemia.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.2 Role of Induction Therapy on Remission Duration.- 7.3 Role of Consolidation Therapy on Remission Duration.- 7.4 Role of Maintenance Chemotherapy in Prolonging Remissions.- 7.5 The Role of Immunotherapy in Maintenance.- 7.6 Prognostic Variables Predicting for Prolonged Remission Duration.- 7.7 Central Nervous System Leukemia.- 7.8 Bone Marrow Transplantation.- 7.9 Summary and Conclusions.- Acknowledgement.- References.- 8. The Role of Marrow Transplantation in the Treatment of Leukemia.- 8.1 Introduction.- 8.2 Donor Selection.- 8.3 Preparative Regimens.- 8.4 Techniques of Marrow Transplantation.- 8.5 Clinical Results in Acute Nonlymphoblastic Leukemia (ANL).- 8.5.1 Refractory ANL.- 8.5.2 First Remission of ANL.- 8.5.3 After First Relapse.- 8.5.4 The Role of Transplantation in ANL.- 8.6 Clinical Results in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL).- 8.6.1 Refractory ALL.- 8.6.2 Remission ALL.- 8.6.3 The Role of Transplantation in ALL.- 8.7 Clinical Results in Chronic Granulocytic Leukemia (CGL).- 8.7.1 CGL Blast Crisis.- 8.7.2 CGL in Chronic Phase.- 8.7.3 The Role of Transplantation in CGL.- 8.8 Leukemic Recurrence After Transplantation.- 8.9 Graft-Versus-Host Disease (GVHD).- 8.9.1 Acute GVHD.- 8.9.2 Chronic GVHD.- 8.9.3 Graft-Versus-Leukemia.- 8.10 Infectious Complications, Including Interstitial Pneumonia.- 8.11 Other Organ Toxicities.- 8.11.1 Cardiac.- 8.11.2 Hepatic.- 8.11.3 Gonadal Function.- 8.12 Summary.- Acknowledgements.- References.- 9 Hyperleukemias in Adult Leukemia.- 9.1 Introduction.- 9.2 Acute Myelocytic Leukemia.- 9.2.1 Central Nervous System Leukemia.- 9.2.2 Lung Involvement.- 9.2.3 Therapy.- 9.3 Chronic Myelocytic Leukemia.- 9.3.1 Central Nervous System.- 9.3.2 Lung Involvement.- 9.3.3 Therapy.- 9.4 Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia.- 9.4.1 Introduction.- 9.4.2 Review of the Literature.- 9.4.3 Therapy.- 9.4.4 Mount Sinai Hospital Experience.- Acknowledgement.- References.- 10 New Developments in the Etiology, Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention of Infectious Complications in Patients with Leukemia.- 10.1 Introduction.- 10.2 Changing Patterns of Infections.- 10.2.1 Bacteria.- 10.2.2 Fungi.- 10.2.3 Mycrobacteria and Nocardia.- 10.2.4 Viruses.- 10.3 New Developments in Evaluation and Diagnosis.- 10.3.1 Nuclear Imaging.- 10.3.2 Serodiagnosis.- 10.3.3 Surveillance Cultures.- 10.4 Developments in Antimicrobial Therapy.- 10.4.1 Empiric Antibiotic Therapy.- 10.4.2 The Patient with Continued Fever and Granulocytopenia.- 10.5 New or Evolving Syndromes in Management of Infections in the Adult Leukemic.- 10.5.1 Foreign Bodies.- 10.5.2 Antibiotic Modifications (Broad vs Specific Therapy).- 10.5.3 Management of Oral Complications.- 10.5.4 Esophagitis.- 10.5.5 Management of Pulmonary Infiltrates.- 10.5.6 Unique Gastrointestinal Pathogens.- 10.5.7 Perirectal Cellulitis and Abscess.- 10.5.8 Rhinocerebral Syndrome.- 10.6 Recent Developments in Adjuvant Therapy.- 10.6.1 Granulocyte Transfusions.- 10.6.2 Immunoglobulins.- 10.6.3 Immune Adjuvants.- 10.7 Current Concepts in Infection Prevention in Acute Leukemia.- 10.7.1 Isolation.- 10.7.1.1 Reverse Isolation.- 10.7.1.2 Total Protected Environment.- 10.7.2 Antibiotic Prophylaxis.- 10.7.2.1 GI Decontamination.- 10.7.2.2 Selective Decontamination.- 10.7.2.3 Monoprophylaxis.- 10.7.2.4 Specific Antimicrobial Prophylaxis.- 10.7.2.5 Recommendations Regarding Antibiotic Prophylaxis.- 10.7.4 Granulocyte Transfusions.- 10.7.5 Summary.- References.

ISBN: 9780898387025
ISBN-10: 0898387027
Series: Developments in Nephrology
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 358
Published: December 2009
Publisher: SPRINGER VERLAG GMBH
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 23.39 x 15.6  x 2.24
Weight (kg): 0.71

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