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Chlorine and the Environment : An Overview of the Chlorine Industry - Ruth Stringer

Chlorine and the Environment

An Overview of the Chlorine Industry

Hardcover Published: 28th February 2001
ISBN: 9780792367970
Number Of Pages: 430

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This is the first book to examine comprehensively the chlorine industry and its effects on the environment. It covers not only the history of chlorine production, but also looks at its products, their effects on the global environment, and the international legislation which controls their use, release, and disposal.
Individual chapters are dedicated to subjects such as releases of organochlorines into the environment, and the environmental impact of ozone depletion, providing simple explanations of these complex issues. These are backed up with case studies of landmark events in the history of the chlorine industry - for example the Seveso explosion or the Yusho and Yu-Cheng mass poisonings.
With a clear, concise text and numerous compilations of critical data, this book will prove an invaluable source reference for environmental scientists, students, and policy makers with an interest in this subject.

Industrial chlorine manufacturep. 1
History of chlorine manufacture and usep. 1
Chlor-alkali production and usep. 6
Modern chlor-alkali manufacture and process integrationp. 11
Energy consumption in chlorine manufacturep. 14
Environmental effects of chlor-alkali processesp. 14
Chlorine end use processesp. 25
Inorganic chlorine compoundsp. 25
Chlorinated hydrocarbonsp. 29
Water disinfection and metallurgyp. 53
Potable waterp. 53
Swimming poolsp. 59
Metals and metal compoundsp. 61
PVC (polyvinyl chloride)p. 79
Global productionp. 79
Properties and applicationsp. 82
The manufacturing processp. 83
Production wastesp. 84
Hazards associated with PVC plasticp. 88
Recyclingp. 95
Disposalp. 98
Pulp and paper productionp. 107
Production processesp. 107
Formation of organochlorines by chlorine bleachingp. 111
Pollution control measuresp. 114
Effects of process modification on organochlorine productionp. 116
Endocrine disruption and pulp and paper millsp. 123
Totally effluent free processes - closing the bleach circuitsp. 125
Environmental releases of organic chlorine compoundsp. 133
Releases from productsp. 133
Industrial emissionsp. 135
Indirect and non-industrial sourcesp. 141
Natural organohalogensp. 153
Environmental behaviour of chlorinated compoundsp. 163
Atmospheric transport and behaviourp. 163
Soils and sedimentsp. 169
The aquatic environmentp. 172
The biospherep. 177
Effects of chlorinated compoundsp. 187
Introductionp. 187
Reproductive toxicityp. 188
Endocrine disruptionp. 189
Immunotoxicityp. 191
Cancerp. 191
Relevance of lab-generated datap. 192
Toxicological impacts of environmental pollutionp. 195
Ozone depletionp. 217
The environmental implications of ozone depletionp. 220
Effects on plantsp. 225
Effects on terrestrial animalsp. 231
Human health effectsp. 232
Chlorinated pesticidesp. 239
DDT and metabolitesp. 240
Aldrin, dieldrin and endrinp. 244
Mirexp. 249
Chlordeconep. 252
Toxaphenep. 255
Lindanep. 258
Pentachlorophenolp. 262
2,4-D and 2,4,5-Tp. 264
Endosulfanp. 267
PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls)p. 277
Production and compositionp. 277
Legislationp. 282
Toxicity and pharmacokineticsp. 284
Case study: the Belgian chicken scandalp. 292
Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and related compoundsp. 305
Introductionp. 305
Occurrence and behaviour in the environmentp. 306
Sourcesp. 306
Toxicityp. 309
Legislationp. 315
Industrial accidents involving dioxinp. 316
Selected persistent oganochlorinesp. 335
Chlorinated paraffinsp. 335
Chlorinated benzenes and toluenesp. 342
Chlorinated toluenesp. 348
Chlorinated naphthalenesp. 351
International legal instrumentsp. 363
Global instrumentsp. 363
EC environmental legislationp. 371
Regional Conventionsp. 375
The future for the chlorine industryp. 385
Sustainability and clean productionp. 385
Pollution controlp. 388
Emerging approachesp. 394
Transition to clean productionp. 397
Nomenclature of organohalogensp. 405
Relative properties of the halogensp. 415
SI units and conversion factorsp. 417
Glossaryp. 419
Abbreviationsp. 425
Table of Contents provided by Blackwell. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780792367970
ISBN-10: 0792367979
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 430
Published: 28th February 2001
Publisher: Springer
Country of Publication: NL
Dimensions (cm): 23.5 x 15.5  x 3.18
Weight (kg): 1.77