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Chimpanzee Material Culture : Implications for Human Evolution - William C. McGrew

Chimpanzee Material Culture

Implications for Human Evolution

Hardcover Published: 27th November 1992
ISBN: 9780521413039
Number Of Pages: 296

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The chimpanzee of all other living species is our closest relation, with whom we last shared a common ancestor about five million years ago. These African apes make and use a rich and varied kit of tools, and of the primates they are the only consistent and habitual tool-users and tool-makers. Chimpanzees meet the criteria of a culture as originally defined for human beings by socio-cultural anthropologists. They show sex differences in using tools to obtain and to process a variety of plant and animal foods. The technological gap between chimpanzees and human societies that live by foraging (hunter-gatherers) is surprisingly narrow at least for food-getting. Different communities of wild chimpanzees have different tool-kits and not all of this regional and local variation can be explained by the demands of the physical and biotic environments in which they live. Some differences are likely to be customs based on socially derived and symbolically encoded traditions. This book describes and analyzes the tool-use of humankind's nearest living relation. It focuses on field studies of these apes across Africa, comparing their customs to see if they can justifiably be termed cultural. It makes direct comparisons with the material culture of human foraging peoples. The book evaluates the chimpanzee as an evolutionary model, showing that chimpanzee behavior helps us to infer the origins of technology in human prehistory.

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' ... masterfully integrates primatology and (paleo)anthropology ...' Elisabetta Visalberghi, Science

Prefacep. xiii
Patterns of culture?p. 1
Introductionp. 1
The preyp. 2
Six key sitesp. 3
Other sitesp. 6
Non-human culture?p. 10
Studying chimpanzeesp. 15
Introductionp. 15
Development of chimpanzee researchp. 16
Studies in naturep. 16
Studies in capitivityp. 20
Sites of studyp. 23
Eastern chimpanzeesp. 23
Central-western chimpanzeesp. 25
Western chimpanzeesp. 27
Captive chimpanzeesp. 28
Methods of studyp. 29
Studies in naturep. 30
Methodological issuesp. 34
Studies in capitivityp. 36
Collecting datap. 38
Conclusionp. 39
Chimpanzees as apesp. 40
Introductionp. 40
Sources and methodsp. 41
Patterns of tool-usep. 44
Chimpanzeep. 44
Bonobop. 47
Orang-utanp. 49
Highland gorillap. 51
Lowland gorillap. 51
Gibbonp. 52
Socio-ecologyp. 53
Brainp. 55
Handsp. 57
Mindp. 57
Apes and their toolsp. 59
Ancestral hominoidsp. 62
Cultured chimpanzees?p. 65
Introductionp. 65
Gombe and Kasoje comparedp. 65
Case study: Groomingp. 67
Defining culturep. 72
Japanese macaquesp. 77
Additional conditions for culturep. 78
Chimpanzees as culture-bearers?p. 79
Culture denied?p. 82
Chimpanzee sexesp. 88
Introductionp. 88
Sex or gender? An asidep. 89
Sex differences in diet: invertebratesp. 89
Case study: Termite-fishingp. 90
Chimpanzees, tools and termitesp. 92
Case study: Ant-dippingp. 93
Chimpanzees and antsp. 97
Sex differences in diet: meatp. 99
Case study: Mammals as preyp. 99
Carnivory elsewherep. 102
Sex and faunivoryp. 103
Nut-crackingp. 105
Food-sharingp. 106
Case-study: Banana-sharingp. 107
Other food sharingp. 111
Other apesp. 112
Origins of sexual division of labourp. 113
Origins of tool-usep. 115
Chimpanzees and foragersp. 121
Cautionary notep. 121
Why compare chimpanzees and hunter-gatherers?p. 121
Ideal versus actual comparisonsp. 123
Hot, dry and open habitats: humans and apes comparedp. 127
Case study: Tasmanian humans and Tanzanian apesp. 131
Oswalt's taxonomyp. 131
Choosing samplesp. 134
Tasmanian aboriginesp. 136
Tanzanian chimpanzeesp. 139
Subsistants comparedp. 141
Similarities and differencesp. 144
Dietp. 144
Food acquisition and processingp. 146
Conclusionsp. 149
Chimpanzees comparedp. 150
Introductionp. 150
Difficulties of comparison: eating meatp. 150
Chimpanzee insectivoryp. 153
Termitesp. 155
Antsp. 159
Honeyp. 162
Explaining variationp. 166
Case study: 'Fishing' for termitesp. 168
Hammers and anvilsp. 173
Chimpanzee ethnologyp. 177
Cataloguing tool-kitsp. 177
Non-subsistence technologyp. 181
Regional and local patternsp. 189
Innovationp. 193
The invention of termite-fishingp. 195
Cross-cultural chimpanzees?p. 196
Chimpanzees as modelsp. 198
Kinds of modelsp. 198
Models of what?p. 200
Stone artefactsp. 202
Why have palaeo-anthropologists ignored other primates?p. 207
Another cautionary notep. 212
Conclusionsp. 214
What chimpanzees are, are not, and might bep. 215
Introductionp. 215
Conceiving of chimpanzeesp. 215
Evolutionarily relevant gapsp. 217
Huntingp. 218
Gatheringp. 218
Food processingp. 219
Communicationp. 222
Unanswered questionsp. 223
Conclusionsp. 230
Scientific namesp. 231
Referencesp. 233
Author indexp. 264
Subject indexp. 270
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780521413039
ISBN-10: 0521413036
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 296
Published: 27th November 1992
Country of Publication: GB
Dimensions (cm): 22.86 x 15.24  x 2.06
Weight (kg): 0.6

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