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Cell Polarity and Subcellular RNA Localization : Fortbildung Und Praxis - Dietmar Richter

Cell Polarity and Subcellular RNA Localization

Fortbildung Und Praxis

By: Dietmar Richter (Editor)

Hardcover Published: February 2001
ISBN: 9783540411420
Number Of Pages: 221

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Selective cytoplasmic organelle and protein targeting has long been thought to constitute the sole determinant of cell polarity and complexity. This view has been changed, however, by the discovery of differential subcellular RNA distribution patterns. Over the past decade it has become clear that selective mRNA sorting and translation contributes to an accumulation of cognate proteins at discrete cellular sites. In this book, various systems are discussed (e.g. Xenopus oocytes, mammalian brain, invertebrate nervous system) in terms of RNA trafficking, RNA-targeting sequences (cis-elements) and RNA-transporting proteins (trans-factors), activity-dependent translational regulation and the significance of the cytoskeleton for neuronal function and plasticity. It also discusses nucleocytoplasmic export of mRNA and viral RNA as another example of subcellular RNA kinesis.

Localization of mRNAs at Synaptic Sites on Dendrites
Introductionp. 1
The Machinery for Translation in Dendritesp. 1
SPRCs Are Precisely Localized in the Postsynaptic Cytoplasmp. 2
SPRCs Are Present at Spine Synapses on Different Neuron Typesp. 2
SPRCs Are Often Associated with Membranous Organelles in an RER-Like Configurationp. 3
SPRCs Are Also Present at Non-Spine Synapsesp. 3
SPRCs Are Especially Prominent at Developing Synapsesp. 4
Types of Proteins That Are Synthesized at SPRCsp. 4
Biochemical Studies of Proteins Synthesized by Subcellular Fractions Enriched in Pinched-Off Dendritesp. 4
mRNAs in the Dendrites of Neurons in Vivop. 6
Molecular Biological Analyses of the Complement of mRNAs in Isolated Dendrites from Neurons in Vitrop. 10
The Search for Novel Dendritic mRNAsp. 11
Activity-Dependent Regulation of mRNA Trafficking in Dendritesp. 11
Lessons from the Study of Arc: A Cellular Mechanism for Protein Synthesis-Dependent Synaptic Modificationp. 14
Post-Translational Processing Within Dendritesp. 14
Signals That Mediate mRNA Routing and Localizationp. 16
Granules: Supramolecular Packets That May Be Involved in mRNA Transportp. 18
mRNA Translocation Mechanismsp. 19
Regulation of mRNA Translation at Synapsesp. 20
Studies in Hippocampal Slicesp. 20
Studies in Intact Animalsp. 20
Studies in Synaptoneurosomesp. 21
Conclusionp. 22
Referencesp. 23
Long-Lasting Hippocampal Plasticity: Cellular Model for Memory Consolidation?
Introductionp. 27
How?p. 28
Long-Term Potentiationp. 28
Synaptic Tagging and the Variable Persistence of Hippocampal Synaptic Plasticityp. 29
Requirements for Cellular Consolidationp. 31
Where?p. 33
When?p. 35
Conclusionp. 37
Referencesp. 37
Neuronal RNA Localization and the Cytoskeleton
Localization of Cytoskeletal Proteins to Neuronal Processes and Growth Conesp. 41
Regulation of Neuronal mRNA Localizationp. 45
Mechanism of mRNA Localizationp. 47
mRNA May Be Transported as Particles or Granulesp. 50
Future Directionsp. 51
Referencesp. 53
Transcription Factors in Dendrites: Dendritic Imprinting of the Cellular Nucleus
Introductionp. 57
CREB mRNA Is Localized to Neuronal Dendritesp. 58
CREB Protein Is Present in Dendritesp. 60
CREB Protein Moves from the Dendrite to the Cell Nucleusp. 61
Potential Importance of Dendritic CREB in Modulating Neuronal Functioningp. 61
Biological Impetus for Dendritic Imprintingp. 65
Referencesp. 67
RNA Trafficking in Oligodendrocytes
Introductionp. 69
A2RE Is a cis-Acting RNA Trafficking Determinantp. 70
hnRNP A2 Is a trans-Acting RNA Trafficking Factorp. 71
A2RE/hnRNP A2-Mediated Nuclear Exportp. 72
A2RE/hnRNP A2-Mediated Granule Assemblyp. 72
A Dual Motor Mechanism for RNA Trafficking on Microtubulesp. 74
RNA Trafficking in the Virtual Cellp. 75
The Taxol Paradoxp. 76
Negotiating Branch Pointsp. 77
Translation Regulationp. 79
Summaryp. 80
Referencesp. 80
Extrasomatic Targeting of MAP2, Vasopressin and Oxytocin mRNAs in Mammalian Neurons
Introductionp. 83
Microtubule-Associated Protein 2p. 83
Dendritic Localization of MAP2 mRNAsp. 83
Distribution and Function of MAP2 in Neuronsp. 84
Characterization of a cis-Acting Dendritic Targeting Element in the MAP2 3 UTRp. 86
Axonal and Dendritic Targeting of VP and OT mRNAsp. 92
Axonal mRNA Compartmentalizationp. 92
Dendritic mRNA Compartmentalizationp. 96
Molecular Determinants of Subcellular mRNA Targetingp. 96
Final Conclusions and Perspectivesp. 97
Referencesp. 101
RNA Transport and Local Protein Synthesis in the Dendritic Compartment
Introductionp. 105
Differential Subcellular RNA Localization in Neuronsp. 106
Dendritic RNAsp. 106
Synaptic mRNAsp. 107
Neurotransmitter Receptor mRNAsp. 107
Non-Neurotransmitter Receptor Synaptic mRNAsp. 108
Axonal and Presynaptic mRNAsp. 109
RNA Transportp. 110
trans-Acting Factorsp. 110
Translational Factors and Transport Granulesp. 110
Granule Motorsp. 111
mRNA-Specific trans-Acting Factorsp. 112
cis-Acting Sequencesp. 113
Synapse and Local Protein Synthesis Machineryp. 114
Ultrastructural Data Suggesting Subsynaptic Protein Synthesisp. 114
Immunocytochemical Characterization of the Dendritic Translational Machineryp. 115
Biochemical Studies of Translation and Glycosylation Within Dendritesp. 116
Activity-Dependent mRNA Transport and Protein Synthesisp. 116
Glutamate Receptor Activation and Calcium Entryp. 117
Ca2+ -CaMKII Activation and Phosphorylation Pathwaysp. 118
The Neurotrophin Signaling Pathwayp. 119
Conclusions and Perspectivesp. 120
Referencesp. 121
Neuronal BC1 RNA: Intracellular Transport and Activity-Dependent Modulation
Evolutionary Relationshipsp. 130
Intracellular Transportp. 131
Activity-Dependent Regulationp. 134
Outlookp. 136
Referencesp. 137
Nucleocytoplasmic mRNA Transport
Introductionp. 139
The Export Machineryp. 139
Nuclear Poresp. 139
Import and Export Receptorsp. 140
The Role of Ran in the Establishment of Compartment Identityp. 141
Cellular mRNA Exportp. 143
The Cap Structurep. 143
The Poly(A) Tailp. 144
hnRNP Proteinsp. 145
SR Proteinsp. 146
Visualization of mRNA Exportp. 146
The Role of Splicing in mRNA Exportp. 147
Conclusionsp. 150
Referencesp. 150
RNA Localization in Xenopus Oocytes
Introductionp. 157
The Early Localization Pathwayp. 158
RNAs That Undergo Localization Along the Early Pathwayp. 158
cis-Acting Elementsp. 159
trans-Acting Factors and Cytoskeletal Elementsp. 160
The Late Pathwayp. 160
RNAs That Undergo Localization Along the Late Pathwayp. 161
cis-Acting Elementsp. 162
trans-Acting Factorsp. 164
Cytoskeletal Elementsp. 167
The Animal Localization Pathwayp. 168
Concluding Remarksp. 169
Referencesp. 170
Local Protein Synthesis in Invertebrate Axons: From Dogma to Dilemma
Introductionp. 175
mRNA in Axonsp. 177
Translocation of mRNAp. 177
Origin of RNAp. 179
Protein Synthesis in Axonsp. 180
The Identity of Protein Synthetic Machinery in Axonsp. 183
Which Proteins Are Synthesized in Axons?p. 185
Functions of Local Protein Synthesisp. 187
Discussionp. 190
Referencesp. 194
Nucleocytoplasmic RNA Transport in Retroviral Replication
Introductionp. 197
Retroviral Replicationp. 198
RNA Export in Simple versus Complex Retrovirusesp. 198
Regulation of HIV-1 Gene Expression: An Overviewp. 201
How Is Nuclear Retention of Rev-Dependent RNAs Determined?p. 201
The HIV-1 Rev-RRE Systemp. 203
CRM1 Is the Cellular Export Receptor for Revp. 205
Other Cellular Factors That Interact with the Rev Proteinp. 206
Rev/RRE-Like Systems in Other Complex Retrovirusesp. 207
CTE: The Constitutive RNA Transport Elements of D-Type Retrovirusesp. 208
hTAP: A Potential Cellular Export Receptor for CTEp. 209
RNA Export in Other Retroviruses and Pararetrovirusesp. 211
Summary and Conclusionsp. 212
Referencesp. 213
Subject Indexp. 219
Table of Contents provided by Publisher. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9783540411420
ISBN-10: 3540411429
Series: Fortbildung Und Praxis
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 221
Published: February 2001
Publisher: SPRINGER VERLAG GMBH
Country of Publication: DE
Dimensions (cm): 23.39 x 15.6  x 1.42
Weight (kg): 0.51