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Cauldrons in the Cosmos : Nuclear Astrophysics - Claus E. Rolfs

Cauldrons in the Cosmos

Nuclear Astrophysics

Paperback

Published: 1st January 1988
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Nuclear astrophysics is, in essence, a science that attempts to understand and explain the physical universe beyond the Earth by studying its smallest particles. "Cauldrons in the Cosmos, " by Claus E. Rolfs and William S. Rodney, serves as a basic introduction to these endeavors. From the major discoveries in the field to a discussion of the makeup of stars to an explanation of standard lab techniques, this text provides students and scientists alike a thorough and fascinating survey of the accomplishments, goals, and methods of nuclear astrophysics. A classic in its field, "Cauldrons in the Cosmos" will surely remain an important reference in nuclear astrophysics for years to come.
"One could not wish for a better account of the current state of knowledge (and uncertainty) about nuclear reactions in stars."--B. E. J. Pagel, "Nature
""Written in an informal style that those uninitiated into the jargon of nuclear astrophysics and astronomy will find readable and illuminating. . . . A useful and long-awaited introduction to nuclear astrophysics."--G. J. Mathews, "Science
"

"An excellent and very readable introduction to the full range of ideas, observations/data, and experimental methods of nuclear astrophysics.... The authors are to be congratulated for capturing both the excitement and the exacting, quantitative essence of nuclear astrophysics." - Peter D. Parker, American Scientist "One could not wish for a better account of the current state of knowledge (and uncertainty) about nuclear reactions in stars." - B. E. J. Pagel, Nature "Written in an informal style that those uninitiated into the jargon of nuclear astrophysics and astronomy will find readable and illuminating.... A useful and long-awaited introduction to nuclear astrophysics." - G. J. Mathews, Science"

Forewordp. xi
Prefacep. xiii
Astronomy-Observing the Universep. 1
Observational Techniquesp. 3
Optical Astronomyp. 3
Radio Astronomyp. 7
Space Astronomyp. 10
Observed Structures in the Cosmosp. 12
The Solar Systemp. 13
Normal Stars and Clusters of Starsp. 15
Unusual Starsp. 19
Eclipsing Starsp. 19
Eruptive Starsp. 19
Pulsating Starsp. 22
Planetary Nebulaep. 25
X-Ray Starsp. 27
Our Galaxy-the Milky Wayp. 28
Galaxies and Clusters of Galaxiesp. 31
Radio Galaxies and Quasarsp. 37
The Universep. 41
Selected General Properties of the Universep. 41
Observed Abundances of the Elementsp. 41
The Hertzsprung-Russell Diagramp. 45
Mass-Luminosity Relation of Main-Sequence Starsp. 46
The Expansion of the Universe and Hubble's Lawp. 48
The Universal Background Radiationp. 51
Quasars as Probes of the Distant Universep. 53
Astrophysics-Explaining the Universep. 55
Big-Bang Cosmologyp. 56
Standard Cosmological Modelsp. 56
Basic Physics and Dynamics of the Standard Big-Bang Modelp. 58
Evolution of the Early Universep. 63
Versions of the Big-Bang Universep. 67
The Beginning of the Standard Universep. 69
Matter-Antimatter Asymmetry and the Origin of Baryonsp. 71
The Inflationary Universep. 77
Nucleosynthesis in the Early Universep. 85
The Quest for Light-Element Creationp. 85
Ashes of the Primeval Big Bangp. 86
Implications of Primordial Nucleosynthesisp. 89
The Formation of Galaxiesp. 91
Physical State of the Stellar Interiorp. 92
Hydrostatic Equilibriump. 93
Equation of State of Normal Starsp. 94
Effects of the Chemical Compositionp. 96
Stored Energy of a Starp. 97
Thermal Equilibriump. 99
Energy Transport Mechanismsp. 100
Magnitude of Stellar Luminositiesp. 102
The Mass-Luminosity Relation and Stellar Lifetimesp. 103
Stellar Stabilityp. 103
Equation of State for Degenerate Matterp. 104
Theory of White Dwarfsp. 107
Neutron Starsp. 108
Black Holesp. 110
The Lives of the Starsp. 112
Birth of Stars in Interstellar Cloudsp. 113
From Nebulae to the Main Sequencep. 115
Main-Sequence Starsp. 116
Endpoints of Stellar Evolutionp. 117
The Origin of the Chemical Elementsp. 121
Evolution of Binary Systemsp. 123
Effects of Gravity on Stars in Contactp. 123
The Nova Phenomenonp. 125
X-Ray Starsp. 127
Supernovae of Type Ip. 130
Definitions and General Characteristics of Thermonuclear Reactionsp. 133
Source of Nuclear Energyp. 134
Cross Sectionp. 137
Stellar Reaction Ratep. 139
Mean Lifetimep. 141
Maxwell-Boltzmann Velocity Distributionp. 142
Inverse Reactionsp. 144
Energy Productionp. 149
Determination of Stellar Reaction Ratesp. 150
Neutron-Induced Nonresonant Reactionsp. 150
Charged-Particle-Induced Nonresonant Reactionsp. 153
Reactions through Isolated and Narrow Resonancesp. 169
Reactions through Broad Resonancesp. 178
Subthreshold Resonancesp. 185
Summaryp. 188
Laboratory Equipment and Techniques in Nuclear Astrophysicsp. 190
Ion Beamsp. 191
Ion Sources and Beam Formationp. 192
Electron-Impact Ion Sourcep. 192
Arc-Discharge Ion Sourcep. 194
Duo-Plasmatron Ion Sourcep. 195
Penning Ion Sourcep. 196
RF Ion Sourcep. 197
Hollow-Cathode Ion Sourcep. 197
Sputter Ion Sourcep. 198
Acceleratorsp. 200
Van de Graaff Acceleratorp. 201
Cockcroft-Walton Acceleratorp. 204
Dynamitron Acceleratorp. 206
Tandem Acceleratorp. 206
Cyclotronp. 208
Linacp. 209
Beam Transport Systemp. 210
Analysis of Beam Propertiesp. 221
Beam Integrationp. 226
Target Features and Target Chambersp. 231
Solid Targetsp. 231
Gas Targetsp. 242
Detectorsp. 250
Detectors for Heavy Charged Particlesp. 253
Neutron Detectorsp. 260
Gamma-Ray Detectorsp. 261
Detection Techniquesp. 270
Electronics and Data Acquisitionp. 270
Detection of Reaction Productsp. 271
Activity Methodp. 284
Time-of-Flight Techniquesp. 287
Experimental Procedures and Data Reductionp. 289
Cross Section and Yield of Nuclear Reactionsp. 289
Factors Affecting the Reaction Yieldp. 292
Reaction Yield and Experimental Observationp. 295
Measurement of Excitation Functionsp. 296
Measurement of Angular Distributionsp. 301
Absolute Cross Section and Resonance Strengthp. 302
Some Future Techniquesp. 310
Detection of Recoil Nuclei in Capture Reactionsp. 310
Accelerator Mass Spectrometryp. 317
Radioactive Ion Beamsp. 319
Storage Ringsp. 324
Hydrogen Burningp. 327
The Proton-Proton Chainp. 328
Theoretical Cross Section for the p + p Reactionp. 328
Burning of Deuteriump. 338
Burning of [superscript 3]He and Completion of the p-p-I Chainp. 340
Stellar Fates of [superscript 7]Bep. 346
The Three p-p Chainsp. 352
Laboratory Approach to p-p Chain Reactionsp. 356
The d(p, [gamma])[superscript 3] He Reactionp. 356
The [superscript 3]He([superscript 3]He, 2p)[superscript 4]He Reactionp. 358
The Capture Reaction [superscript 3]He([alpha], [gamma])[superscript 7]Bep. 360
Termination of the p-p Chains II and IIIp. 362
Processes Involving the Weak Forcep. 364
The CNO Cyclesp. 365
The CN Cyclep. 367
The CNO Bi-cyclep. 369
The Discovery of Additional Cyclesp. 371
Consequences of the CNO Cyclesp. 374
Other Cyclesp. 375
The NeNa Cyclep. 376
The MgAl Cyclep. 379
Elemental Abundancesp. 381
Helium Burningp. 384
The Detour around the Mass Stability Gaps, and the Creation of [superscript 12]Cp. 387
The Survival of [superscript 12]C in Red Giantsp. 395
Expected Properties of the [superscript 12]C([alpha], [gamma])[superscript 16]O Reactionp. 395
Measurements of the [superscript 12]C([alpha], [gamma])[superscript 16]O Reactionp. 401
Elemental Abundancesp. 404
The Blocking of Quiescent Helium Burningp. 406
Other Helium-Burning Reactionsp. 408
Perspectives on Helium-Burning Reactionsp. 410
Advanced and Explosive Burningp. 413
Quiescent Heavy-Ion Burningp. 414
Absorption under the Barrierp. 418
Intermediate Structure in the Continuump. 421
Gross Energy Dependencep. 422
Silicon Burningp. 423
The Photodisintegration Erap. 424
Photodisintegration in Silicon Burningp. 428
The Nuclear Physics of Silicon Burningp. 431
The Final Bursts of Nucleosynthesis in Massive Starsp. 436
The Inner Structure of a Presupernova Starp. 436
Theories of Supernovae of Type IIp. 439
Explosive Nucleosynthesisp. 445
Nuclear Physics Aspects of Explosive Burningp. 448
Nucleosynthesis beyond Ironp. 449
The Quest for the Origin of the Trans-Iron Elementsp. 449
Neutron-Capture Cross Sectionsp. 451
Basic Mechanisms for Nucleosynthesis beyond Ironp. 457
The s-Processp. 461
The r-Processp. 469
Nucleocosmochronology-the Age of the Chemical Elementsp. 477
Miscellaneous Topicsp. 490
The Case of the Missing Solar Neutrinosp. 490
The Questp. 490
The Standard Solar Modelp. 491
Detection of Solar Neutrinosp. 493
Suggested Solutionsp. 496
Isotopic Anomalies and the Early History of the Solar Systemp. 498
The Homogeneous Isotopic Compositionp. 498
The Discovery of Isotopic Anomaliesp. 501
Oxygen Isotopic Anomaliesp. 502
Magnesium and the Discovery of Extinct [superscript 26]Alp. 504
Neon and Extinct [superscript 22]Nap. 506
Conclusionsp. 507
The Origin of the Light Elements Li, Be, and Bp. 508
The Problemp. 508
Properties of Galactic Cosmic Raysp. 510
Production of Li, Be, and B via Spallationp. 512
Epiloguep. 515
Notation and Unitsp. 517
Referencesp. 523
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780226724577
ISBN-10: 0226724573
Series: Theoretical Astrophysics
Audience: Professional
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 580
Published: 1st January 1988
Publisher: The University of Chicago Press
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 23.7 x 18.0  x 3.18
Weight (kg): 0.88