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Catalysis in Petrochemical Processes - Sami Matar

Catalysis in Petrochemical Processes

By: Sami Matar (Editor), M.J. Mirbach (Editor), Hassan A. Tayim (Editor)

Hardcover

Published: 1989
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The field of petrochemicals started some years ago with the simple addition reaction of water to propylene for the production of isopropyl alcohol. Currently, the petrochemical industry has become a multi-billion dollar enterprise which encompasses a wide field of chemical products. Almost all the basic organic reactions such as hydrogenation, alkylation, substitution, polymerization, etc. are utilized for the production of these chemicals. It may not, however, have been possible to establish this huge industry without the use of different catalysts. In other words, the great advancements in the catalytic area have supported the vast developments in the petrochemical field. In this book, we have adopted the idea of discussing the petrochemical industry from the point of view of reactants' activities and susceptibilities toward different catalysts. The book is thus classified according to the reaction type. This will eriable students and other users of the book to base their understanding of the petrochemical field on the fundamental principles learned in chemistry. How ever, the first chapter is aimed at establishing some basic facts on the petro chemical industry and its major uses. It discusses, without going into details, the raw materials used, the intermediates and the downstream products. The next eight chapters discuss in some detail the main reactions and the catalysts used for the production of chemicals and polymers from petroleum. The last chapter is devoted to a discussion of some of the practical techniques used in the catalytic field."

1/Raw Materials and Chemicals from Carbonaceous Sources.- 1. Introduction.- 1.1. Raw Materials.- 1.1.1. Natural and Associated Gases.- 1.1.2. Crude Oils.- 1.1.3. Coal, Peat, Oil Shale and Tar Sands.- 1.2. Intermediates for Petrochemical Production.- 1.2.1. Ethylene, Propene and Butenes.- 1.2.2. Butadiene, Isoprene and Chloroprene.- 1.2.3. Benzene, Toluene and Xylenes (BTX).- 1.2.4. Synthesis Gas.- References.- 2/Types of Catalysts Used in Petrochemical Processes.- 2. Introduction.- 2.1. Catalyst Types.- 2.1.1. Heterogeneous Catalysts.- 2.1.2. Homogeneous Catalysts.- 2.1.3. Heterogenized Homogeneous Catalysts.- 2.2. Basic Principles of Coordination Compounds.- 2.2.1. Theories of Bonding in Coordination Compounds.- 2.2.2. Structure and Reactivity of Coordination Compounds.- 2.2.3. Some Reaction Types Characteristic of Coordination Compounds.- 2.2.4. Requirements of Effective Catalysts.- References.- 3/Hydrogenation - Dehydrogenation Processes.- 3. Introduction.- 3.1. Hydrogenation.- 3.1.1. Hydrogenation Catalysts.- 3.1.2. Hydrogenation Reactions and Processes.- 3.2. Dehydrogenation.- 3.2.1. Dehydrogenation of C-4 and C-5 Alkanes and Alkanes.- 3.2.2. Dehydrogenation of Higher Alkanes to Monoalkenes.- 3.2.3. Catalytic Reforming of Naphtha (Production of Benzene, Toluene and Xylenes).- 3.2.4. Dehydrogenation of Ethylbenzene.- 3.2.5. Dehydrogenation of Alcohols.- References.- 4/Alkylation Processes.- 4. Introduction.- 4.1. Alkylation Catalysts.- 4.2. Alkylation Using Alkenes (Olefins).- 4.2.1. Alkylation of Isobutane (Production of 2,2,4-Trimethylpentane and Other Branched Alkanes).- 4.2.2. Alkylation of Benzene with Alkenes.- 4.2.3. Alkylation of Phenol with Alkenes.- 4.3. Alkylations Using Alcohols.- 4.3.1. Alkylation of Phenol with Methanol (Production of Methyl- phenols).- 4.3.2. Alkylation of Toluene with Methanol (Production of Xylenes).- 4.3.3. Alkylation of Amines with Methanol (Production of Methyl- amines).- 4.4. Alkylation Using Alkyl Halides.- References.- 5/Catalytic Oxidation Reactions.- 5. Introduction.- 5.1. Oxidation of Saturated Hydrocarbons.- 5.2. Oxidation of Olefins.- 5.2.1. Ethylene Oxidation.- 5.2.2. Propylene Oxidation.- 5.3. Oxidation of Alcohols: Methanol to Formaldehyde.- 5.3.1. Silver Process.- 5.3.2. Iron Molybdate Process.- 5.4. Oxidation of Aldehydes.- 5.4.1. Acetic Acid.- 5.5. Oxidation of Aromatic Hydrocarbons.- 5.5.1. Phenol.- 5.5.2. Maleic Anhydride.- 5.5.3. Phthalic Anhydride.- 5.5.4. Terephthalic Acid.- 5.5.5. Anthraquinone.- 5.5.6. Ammoxidation.- References.- 6/Production and Uses of Synthesis Gas.- 6.1. Introduction.- 6.2. Manufacture of Synthesis Gas.- 6.2.1. Steam Reforming.- 6.2.2. Partial Oxidation.- 6.2.3. Water Gas Shift Reaction.- 6.2.4. Synthesis gas Purification.- 6.2.5. Economics of Synthesis Gas Production.- 6.2.6. The Catalysts.- 6.2.7. Description of the Process of Steam Reforming of Natural Gas.- 6.3. Synthesis Gas as a Chemical Feedstock.- 6.3.1. Methanol Synthesis.- 6.3.2. Fischer-Tropsch and Related Synthesis.- 6.3.3. Ammonia and Related Products.- References.- 7/Oxo and Carbonylation Reactions.- 7. Introduction.- 7.1.The Oxo Process.- 7.1.1. The Mechanism of the Cobalt Carbonyl Catalyzed Hydro-formylation.- 7.2. The Carbonylation of Olefins.- 7.3. Carbonylation of Methanol to Acetic Acid.- References.- 8/Acid or Base Catalyzed Addition, Elimination and Substitution Reactions.- 8.1. Introduction.- 8.2. Mechanistic Consideration. Addition Reactions.- 8.3. Hydration of Olefins.- 8.3.1. Ethanol Production.- 8.3.2. Isopropanol Production.- 8.3.3. Higher Alcohols by Hydration of Olefins.- 8.4. Hydration of Ethylene Oxide.- 8.5. Propene Oxide and Higher Epoxides.- 8.6. Dimerization and Oligomerization of Olefins.- 8.7. Vinyl Compounds.- 8.7.1. Vinyl Chloride.- 8.7.2. Vinyl Fluoride.- 8.7.3. Vinyl Acetate.- 8.8. Acrylic Acid Derivatives.- 8.8.1. Acrylic Acid.- 8.8.2. Acrylonitrile.- 8.8.3. Allyl Compounds.- 8.8.4. Methacrylic Acid Derivatives.- 8.8.5. Miscellaneous Reactions.- References.- 9/Catalytic Polymerization.- 9. Introduction.- 9.1. Monomers, Polymers and Copolymers.- 9.2. Classification of Polymers.- 9.2.1. Plastics.- 9.2.2. Synthetic Fibers.- 9.2.3. Elastomers.- 9.3. Polymerization Reactions.- 9.3.1. Condensation Polymerization.- 9.3.2. Addition Polymerization.- 9.4. Polymerization Techniques.- 9.5. Some Important Polymers Formed by Coordination Catalysts.- 9.5.1. Production of 1-Butene.- 9.5.2. Production of Linear Alcohols.- 9.5.3. Production of ?-Olefins.- 9.5.4. Production of Linear Polyethylene.- 9.5.5. Production of Polypropylene.- 9.5.6. Polybutadiene.- 9.5.7. Polyisoprene.- 9.5.8. Trans-Polypentamer.- 9.5.9. Polychloroprene.- References.- 10/ Experimental Techniques in Catalysis.- 10.1. Introduction.- 10.2. Preparation of Heterogeneous Catalysts.- 10.2.1. Mixing.- 10.2.2. Impregnation.- 10.2.3. Precipitation.- 10.2.4. Skeleton Catalysts.- 10.3. Characterization of Heterogeneous Catalysts.- 10.4. Testing Catalysts in the Laboratory.- 10.4.1. Examples of Integral Reactors.- 10.4.2. Examples of Differential Reactors.- 10.5. Preparation of Homogeneous Catalysts.- 10.6. Characterization of Homogeneous Catalysts.- 10.7. Testing of Homogeneous Catalysts 193 References.- References.

ISBN: 9789027727213
ISBN-10: 902772721X
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 200
Published: 1989
Publisher: Springer
Country of Publication: NL
Dimensions (cm): 23.5 x 15.5  x 1.6
Weight (kg): 0.49