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Caribbean Tsunamis : A 500-Year History from 1498-1998 - Karen Fay O'Loughlin

Caribbean Tsunamis

A 500-Year History from 1498-1998

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Published: 30th November 2003
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In the past 500 years, the Caribbean region has had devastating tsunamis causing incalculable damage. It is an area of relatively high seismicity, and although tsunamis are not the chief natural hazard, they have the potential to produce catastrophic regional disasters.
Today the necessity for awareness is of paramount importance. Tectonic forces continually build stress - until the inevitable release of strain that may trigger a tsunamigenic earthquake. The lack of a major tsunami in the past 57 years is due to a relative lack of relief of built-up energy, and the potential extent of the stress release grows as time elapses. The long period without relief of seismic stress buildup only increases the ominous threat of a devastating tsunami that could result from a sudden seafloor cataclysm.
Caribbean Tsunamis - A 500-Year History from 1498-1998 broadly characterizes the nature of tsunamis in the Caribbean Sea, while bearing in mind both scientific aspects as well as potential interest by the many governments and populations likely to be affected by the hazard. Comprehension of the nature of tsunamis and past effects is crucial for the awareness and education of populations at risk.
Audience: This book provides a thorough, yet highly accessible review of tsunamis in the Caribbean. It is of interest not only to tsunami and natural hazards specialists at academia and governmental institutes, but also to policy makers and to the general public.

Prefacep. ix
Acknowledgments and Notesp. xiii
In Memoriamp. xv
The Caribbeanp. 1
Islands and countries affected by Caribbean tsunamisp. 1
Early namesp. 3
The Tsunami Hazardp. 7
Characteristics of tsunamisp. 7
Tsunami hazardp. 8
Caribbean seismic hazardp. 12
About the 500-Year Tsunami Historyp. 19
Details about the 1498 to 1998 Caribbean Tsunami Historyp. 19
Waveheightp. 22
Validity ratingp. 24
Tsunami Validity Parametersp. 25
Validity Rating Comparisonp. 25
Reliability Estimatesp. 25
Magnitude and intensityp. 28
Qualitative Imamura-lida Tsunami Magnitude Scale: I-Ip. 29
Event reportsp. 30
March 17, 1868, Puerto Rico and Bequiap. 32
May 7, 1842, Haitip. 33
November 30, 1827, Martiniquep. 33
Present U.S. Caribbean territories affected by tsunamisp. 34
Types and Effects of Tsunamisp. 37
Teletsunamisp. 37
November 1, 1755, Lisbon, Portugal, and the West Indiesp. 37
March 31, 1761, Lisbon, Portugal, and the West Indiesp. 41
Tectonic tsunamisp. 42
September 1, 1530, Cumana, Venezuelap. 42
November 18, 1867, Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, and Antillesp. 42
Landslide tsunamisp. 50
November 18, 1867, Sainte-Rose, Guadeloupep. 51
October 11, 1918, Puerto Ricop. 51
June 7, 1692, Port Royal, Jamaicap. 56
January 14, 1907, Port Royal, Jamaicap. 57
September 7, 1882, Archipielago de San Blas, Panamap. 58
April 6, 1690, Nevis and Saint Thomasp. 58
February 8, 1843, Guadeloupep. 59
Volcanic tsunamisp. 60
May 7 to 9, 1902, Saint Vincent, Martinique, Saint Luciap. 60
The Soufriere, Saint Vincent, May 7 to 8p. 60
Mont Pelee, Martinique, May 8p. 61
Hodder's Submarine Volcano, near Saint Lucia, May 9p. 63
May 20, 1902, Mont Pelee, Martiniquep. 63
August 30, 1902, Mont Pelee, Martiniquep. 64
December 26, 1997, Montserratp. 64
November 3, 1911, Trinidadp. 65
November 18, 1867, Grenada and Little Sabap. 67
March 17, 1843, Marie-Galante, Guadeloupep. 70
August 27, 1883, Saint Thomasp. 70
1939 and 1990, Kick-`em-Jenny Submarine Volcano Mountp. 71
La Palma, Islas Canariasp. 75
Triggering effect of hurricanesp. 75
October 3, 1780, Savanna-la-Mar, Jamaicap. 78
Education about Tsunami Risksp. 81
Tsunami fatalitiesp. 81
October 11, 1918, Puerto Ricop. 81
August 4, 1946, Dominican Republicp. 82
Four-Region 150-Year Fatality Comparisonp. 83
Tsunami descriptionsp. 85
August 9, 1856, Criba Lagoon, Hondurasp. 85
June 3, 1770, Haitip. 85
February 22, 1798, Barra de Matina, Costa Ricap. 86
January 1, 1907, Port Royal, Jamaicap. 86
November 18, 1867, Saint Thomasp. 87
Historical insightp. 92
October 18, 1751, Azua, Dominican Republicp. 93
Growing comprehension of the hazardp. 94
Summary of key factors for Tsunami Risk Assessmentp. 95
Awareness of tsunami indicators and risksp. 95
Concluding remarksp. 98
Appendicesp. 103
Islands of the West Indiesp. 103
Greater Antillesp. 103
Lesser Antillesp. 104
Leeward Islands (The Leewards)p. 104
Windward Islands (The Windwards)p. 105
Southern Antillesp. 106
Other Caribbean Islands in the Historical Recordp. 107
Caribbean Continental Country Islandsp. 107
Interval Periods for Major Tsunamisp. 108
Equivalent Linear Conversionsp. 110
Earthquake Scale Definitionsp. 111
Modified Mercalli Earthquake Intensity Scale: MMIp. 111
Rossi-Forell Earthquake Intensity Scale: R-Fp. 112
Other Earthquake Intensity Scalesp. 112
Hall Earthquake Intensity Scalep. 112
Milne Earthquake Intensity Scalep. 113
Ramirez Earthquake Intensity Scalep. 113
Robson Earthquake Intensity Scalep. 113
Rockwood Earthquake Intensity Scalep. 114
Rudolph Earthquake Intensity Scalep. 114
Richter Earthquake Magnitude Scalep. 115
U.S. Caribbean Territories Affected by Tsunamisp. 116
The Caribbean Tsunami Historyp. 118
Bibliographyp. 217
Index of Geographic Namesp. 253
Acknowledgement of Copyright Exclusionp. 263
Table of Contents provided by Rittenhouse. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9781402017179
ISBN-10: 1402017170
Series: Advances in Natural and Technological Hazards Research
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 263
Published: 30th November 2003
Publisher: Springer-Verlag New York Inc.
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 29.7 x 21.0  x 1.27
Weight (kg): 1.26