Carbon gasification reactions form the basis of many important industrial processes, such as the combustion of coal and the produc- tion of synthesis gas, fuel gases and activated carbons. They are also involved in metallurgical processes and in the regeneration of coked catalysts. Thus, understanding the fundamentals of carbon gasification is of vital importance for further technological development. Moreover, the subject is of interdisciplinary nature, involving chemistry, ma- terials science and chemical engineering. Therefore, it was thought that an Advanced Study Institute would be fruitful in establishing the state of the art, in bringing together experts from the various sectors involved and in identifying areas of required research and industrial development. Such a meeting was held at Alvor, Portugal, from the 20th to the 31st May 1985, and the lectures presented the- reof are collected in this volume. The present volume is organized in seven chapters. The Intro- duction presents the carbon gasification reactions an~ their rele- vance for particular processes and industrial uses. In the second chapter, the structures of carbon and coal are reviewed, together with methods of structural, chemical and textural characterization.
I. Introduction.- Carbon gasification - A ubiquitous reaction of great importance to mankind.- II. Structure and characterization.- Structure in carbons.- Coal structure.- Physico-chemical and structural characterization of carbons.- Textural characterization of porous carbons by physical adsorption of gases.- III. Catalytic gasification.- Catalytic gasification.- Alkali metal catalyzed water vapour gasification of carbon using mineral catalyst raw materials.- Iron catalyzed water vapour gasification of carbon.- Metal catalyzed gasification of graphite.- Gasification of carbon deposited on metallic catalysts.- IV. Chemical Engineering principles.- Kinetics of catalysed and uncatalysed coal gasification.- Single particle models for fluid-solid reactions.- V. Coal gasification.- General aspects and engineering principles for technical application of coal gasification.- Technical status and new developments of coal gasification processes.- Characterisation of coal for gasification processes.- Some scientific aspects of the development of the slagging gasifier.- Coal pyrolysis.- Hydrogasification of brown coal - Chemism, kinetics and technical aspects.- VI. Coke production and removal.- The making of coke in the delayed coker and in the slot coking oven.- Coke formation and gasification in refineries.- The regeneration of coked catalysts.- VII. Activated carbons.- Fundamentals and practical implications of activated carbon production by partial gasification of carbonaceous materials.- Preparation and characterization of activated carbons.- List of participants.