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Cancer as an Environmental Disease : Environmental Science and Technology Library - Polyxeni Nicolopoulou-Stamati

Cancer as an Environmental Disease

Environmental Science and Technology Library

By: Polyxeni Nicolopoulou-Stamati (Editor), Luc Hens (Editor), Vyvyan C. Howard (Editor), N. Van Larebeke (Editor)

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Published: 31st March 2004
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During recent decades the somatic mutation theory for the causation of cancer has held sway. The influence of environmental factors in the aetiology of cancer has become a matter of debate between those who maintain that it is largely a degenerative phenomenon and other voices who increasingly support the hypothesis that environmental factors predominate. An examination of some aspects of this debate is the prime purpose of this book. The increasing incidence of cancer across many parts of the world, particularly in children, has happened over a very short period of time in evolutionary terms. One can infer that it is connected to changes in the environment and/or our lifestyles. A major counter-argument to this contention is that rising cancer incidence is mainly because the average life expectancy has increased. These pages contain a number of chapters from specialists in the field who consider, from a number of different perspectives, the currently available evidence that supports the environmental cancer aetiology hypothesis. This constitutes the first part of the book. In the second part of the book, an examination of the policy implications of accepting that the cancer epidem

Preface and Acknowledgementsp. ix
List of Contributorsp. xiii
List of Figuresp. xv
List of Tablesp. xvii
List of Boxesp. xix
Introduction: Cancer and the Environment - Revisiting Traditional Views of Involuntary Exposure to Carcinogensp. 1
Summaryp. 1
Introductionp. 2
Cancer and the Environmentp. 3
Competing Theories of Aetiological Mechanisms in Cancerp. 4
Exposure to Carcinogens in Early Life - a Strong Indication that Environmental Influences are Importantp. 5
Goal of This Bookp. 6
Conclusionsp. 8
Referencesp. 9
Incorporating the Environmental Context in the Study of Cancer - Issues and Implicationsp. 11
Summaryp. 11
Introductionp. 12
Evidence for the Environmental Basis of Cancerp. 13
Wildlife Studiesp. 14
Growing Cancer Trendsp. 15
Immigrant Studiesp. 16
Childhood Cancerp. 17
Twin Studiesp. 21
Studying the Cancer and Environment Relationshipp. 21
Approaches to Studying the Cancer - Environment Relationshipp. 21
The Importance of Environmental Exposure Assessmentp. 23
Cancer Clustersp. 24
The Woburn Leukaemia Clusterp. 26
Implications of Risk Assessment for Cancer Policy and Interventionp. 27
Uncertainties in Environmental Exposure Assessmentp. 27
Statistical Significance versus Practical Significancep. 28
The Precautionary Principle and the Cancer-Environment Relationshipp. 28
Conclusionsp. 30
Referencesp. 31
Could the Increase in Cancer Incidence Be Related to Recent Environmental Changes?p. 39
Summaryp. 39
Introductionp. 39
Cancer in Pre-Industrial Societyp. 40
The Increase in Average Life Expectancyp. 42
Cancer Incidence vs. Mortality Ratep. 43
Human Epidemiological Evidence that Environmental Factors are Paramount in the Aetiology of Cancerp. 44
Could Chronic Low Dose Exposure to Carcinogens Lead to Cancer?p. 45
Changes in Patterns of Human Developmentp. 47
Temporal Patterns of Changep. 49
Changes in the Patterns of Human Exposure to Ionising Radiationp. 50
Public Perceptionsp. 52
Conclusionsp. 53
Acknowledgementsp. 54
Referencesp. 54
The Role of DNA Damage and DNA-Damaging Environmental Chemicals in Carcinogenesisp. 57
Summaryp. 57
Introductionp. 57
Metabolismp. 59
Chemical Carcinogenesisp. 61
Biomarkers of Exposurep. 63
Methods of Detectionp. 65
Conclusionsp. 66
Acknowledgementsp. 67
Referencesp. 67
Gene-Environment Interaction in Environmental Carcinogensp. 71
Summaryp. 71
Introductionp. 71
Metabolism of Chemical Carcinogensp. 73
Cytochrome P450p. 73
Glutathione S-Transferasep. 77
Myeloperoxidasep. 84
Epoxide Hydrolasep. 85
NAD(P)H:Quinone Oxidoreductasep. 87
N-Acetyltransferasep. 88
Gene-Gene Interactionp. 91
Effect on Cancer Riskp. 91
Effect on Biomarkersp. 91
Defence Against Oxidative Stressp. 92
Genetic Polymorphism in Anti-Oxidant Enzymesp. 93
Conclusionsp. 94
Referencesp. 94
Health Impact Assessment of Accidents with Environmental Carcinogens - A Case Study of the Belgian PCB/Dioxin Incident in 1999p. 103
Summaryp. 103
Introductionp. 104
Phenomenology of the Belgian PCB/Dioxin Incident in 1999p. 106
Hazard Identificationp. 109
Carcinogenicityp. 109
Non-Cancer Effectsp. 110
Dose-Response Assessmentp. 114
TCDD-Dioxinsp. 114
PCBsp. 116
Exposure Assessmentp. 117
Background Emissionsp. 117
Acute Exposurep. 120
Exposure Standardsp. 122
Metabolismp. 123
Risk Assessmentp. 124
Aspects of Riskp. 124
Uncertaintiesp. 128
Conclusionp. 129
Referencesp. 130
Anti-Oxidants and Chemopreventive Agents as Cancer Enhancing Agent: The Other Side of the Coinp. 135
Summaryp. 135
Introductionp. 136
Co-Carcinogenic Properties of [beta]CTp. 137
The Co-Carcinogenicity of [beta]-Carotene Enhances the Transformation Potential of Benzo[a]pyrene and Cigarette Smoke Condensatep. 139
Cruciferae Vegetables, Glucosinolates and Chemopreventionp. 141
Co-Carcinogenic Properties of Glucoraphanin, the Natural Bioprecursor of Sulforaphanep. 142
Conclusionsp. 143
Acknowledgementsp. 144
Referencesp. 144
Legislative Proposals for Reversing the Cancer Epidemic and Controlling Run-Away Industrial Technologiesp. 149
Summaryp. 149
Losing the Winnable War against Cancer (Epstein, 1998)p. 149
The Legislative Proposalsp. 152
The Precautionary Principle: Prohibition of New Carcinogenic Products and Untested New Technologiesp. 153
Reduction of Toxics in Usep. 155
Right-To-Knowp. 157
Consumer Productsp. 158
Prescription Drugsp. 160
Occupational Cancerp. 161
Environmental Cancerp. 161
Transparent Decision-making on Cancer, other Public Health and Environmental Effectsp. 162
White Collar Crimep. 165
Independent Citizen Health and Safety Agencyp. 169
Referencesp. 169
Re-Evaluation of Priorities in Addressing the Cancer Issue: Conclusions, Strategies, Prospectsp. 171
Summaryp. 171
Introductionp. 172
Scientific Basis for Cancer as an Environmental Diseasep. 174
Cancer Causes Re-visitedp. 174
Exposurep. 176
Cancer and the Immune Systemp. 177
Uncertainty over Mechanisms of Carcinogenesisp. 178
Environmental Factors and Cancer Summaryp. 179
Causation, the Application of Sir Bradford Hill's Criteria to the Problem of Environmental Pollution and Cancerp. 181
Target Groupsp. 184
Policyp. 185
Basic Principlesp. 185
Objectivesp. 186
Instrumentsp. 187
EU Policyp. 194
Conclusionsp. 195
Referencesp. 196
List of Abbreviationsp. 201
List of Unitsp. 203
Indexp. 205
Table of Contents provided by Rittenhouse. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9781402020193
ISBN-10: 1402020198
Series: Environmental Science and Technology Library
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 215
Published: 31st March 2004
Publisher: Springer-Verlag New York Inc.
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 23.5 x 15.5  x 1.75
Weight (kg): 0.52