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Caldera Volcanism, Volume 10 : Analysis, Modelling and Response - Joachim Gottsman

Caldera Volcanism, Volume 10

Analysis, Modelling and Response

Hardcover Published: 28th May 2008
ISBN: 9780444531650
Number Of Pages: 516

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This volume aims at providing answers to some puzzling questions concerning the formation and the behavior of collapse calderas by exploring our current understanding of these complex geological processes. Addressed are problems such as:
- How do collapse calderas form?
- What are the conditions to create fractures and slip along them to initiate caldera collapse and when are these conditions fulfilled?
- How do these conditions relate to explosive volcanism?
- Most products of large caldera-forming eruptions show evidence for pre-eruptive reheating. Is this a pre-requisite to produce large volume eruptions and large calderas?
- What are the time-scales behind caldera processes?
- How long does it take magma to reach conditions ripe enough to generate a caldera-forming eruption?
- What is the mechanical behavior of magma chamber walls during caldera collapse? Elastic, viscoelastic, or rigid?
- Do calderas form by underpressure following a certain level of magma withdrawal from a reservoir, or by magma chamber loading due to deep doming (underplating), or both?
- How to interpret unrest signals in active caldera systems?
- How can we use information from caldera monitoring to forecast volcanic phenomena?
In the form of 14 contributions from various disciplines this book samples the state-of-the-art of caldera studies and identifies still unresolved key issues that need dedicated cross-boundary and multidisciplinary efforts in the years to come.
* International contributions from leading experts
* Updates and informs on all the latest developments
* Highlights hot topic areas and indentifies and analyses unresolved key issues

Industry Reviews

"Caldera Volcanism contributes to a comprehensive body of detailed information on volcanology. It provides a useful review of important processes associated with calderas.this book would certainly be valuable for graduate students and non-specialists in caldera processes who wish to gain an overview of the topic."--Bull Volcanol 2011 vol.73 pp. 1421-1422

Contributorsp. xi
Prefacep. xv
Residence Times of Silicic Magmas Associated with Calderasp. 1
Introductionp. 2
Methods for Obtaining Time Constraints of Magmatic Processesp. 5
Residence Times of Magmas Associated with Selected Calderasp. 11
Interpretation of Residence Times and Integration with Thermal and Mechanical Constrainsp. 35
Summary and Conclusionsp. 45
Acknowledgmentsp. 47
Referencesp. 47
Sedimentology, Depositional Mechanisms and Pulsating Behaviour of Pyroclastic Density Currentsp. 57
Introduction: What are Pyroclastic Density Currents?p. 58
Key Conceptsp. 60
Sedimentology: Main Particle Support and Segregation Mechanisms in PDCsp. 63
Depositional Processes in PDCsp. 70
Field Evidences of Stepwise Aggradation in Pulsating PDCsp. 84
Conclusive Remarks and Future Perspectivesp. 87
Acknowledgementsp. 90
Referencesp. 90
The Use of Lithic Clast Distributions in Pyroclastic Deposits to Understand Pre- and Syn-Caldera Collapse Processes: A Case Study of the Abrigo Ignimbrite, Tenerife, Canary Islandsp. 97
Introductionp. 98
Review of Lithic Component Studies and Inferred Caldera Processesp. 99
Case Study of the Abrigo Ignimbritep. 106
Conclusionsp. 135
Acknowledgementsp. 136
Referencesp. 136
The Ignimbrite Flare-Up and Graben Calderas of the Sierra Madre Occidental, Mexicop. 143
Introductionp. 144
The Sierra Madre Occidental Volcanic Provincep. 145
Regional Stratigraphy of the Sierra Madre Occidentalp. 149
Graben Calderas of the Sierra Madre Occidentalp. 153
Conclusionsp. 173
Acknowledgmentsp. 173
Referencesp. 174
Characterisation of Archean Subaqueous Calderas in Canada: Physical Volcanology, Carbonate-Rich Hydrothermal Alteration and a New Exploration Modelp. 181
Introductionp. 183
Abitibi Greenstone Belt Geologyp. 183
Notion of Calderasp. 186
Hunter Mine Calderap. 187
Normetal Calderap. 202
Sturgeon Lake Caldera, Wabigoon Subprovincep. 211
The Link: Subaqueous Calderas with Chert-Iron Formation and Hydrothermal Carbonatesp. 214
Discussionp. 220
Conclusionsp. 225
Acknowledgementsp. 226
Referencesp. 227
A Review on Collapse Caldera Modellingp. 233
Introductionp. 234
The Role of Experimental Models in Caldera Studiesp. 235
Theoretical Models on Collapse Calderas Formationp. 244
Geophysical Imaging and Its Value for Caldera Studiesp. 259
Discussion and Implicationsp. 273
Conclusionsp. 277
Acknowledgementsp. 277
Referencesp. 278
Structural Development of Calderas: A Synthesis from Analogue Experimentsp. 285
Introductionp. 286
Analogue Modellingp. 287
Experimental Studies on Calderasp. 289
Discussionp. 299
Comparison to Nature: Guidelinesp. 302
Towards a New Caldera Evolution Schemep. 305
Conclusionsp. 307
Acknowledgementsp. 308
Referencesp. 308
Magma-Chamber Geometry, Fluid Transport, Local Stresses and Rock Behaviour During Collapse Caldera Formationp. 313
Introductionp. 314
Collapse Caldera Structuresp. 317
Geometry of the Magma Chamberp. 324
Behaviour of Crustal Rocksp. 326
Magma-Chamber Rupture and Fluid Transport Along a Dykep. 329
Stress Fields Triggering Ring-Fault Initiationp. 332
Discussionp. 340
Conclusionsp. 344
Acknowledgementsp. 345
Referencesp. 345
Facilitating Dike Intrusions into Ring Faultsp. 351
Introductionp. 352
Modeling Methodp. 355
Resultsp. 356
Discussionp. 367
Conclusionp. 371
Acknowledgementsp. 371
Referencesp. 371
A New Uplift Episode at Campi Flegrei Caldera (Southern Italy): Implications for Unrest Interpretation and Eruption Hazard Evaluationp. 375
Introductionp. 376
Recent Ground Deformation Data at Campi Flegrei Calderap. 379
Displacement Shapes and Maximum Vertical to Horizontal Ratiosp. 384
Discussion and Conclusionp. 388
Acknowledgmentsp. 390
Referencesp. 390
Hydrothermal Fluid Circulation and its Effect on Caldera Unrestp. 393
Introductionp. 394
The Hydrothermal Fluid Circulationp. 395
Modelling of Hydrothermal Fluid Circulationp. 397
Hydrothermal Systems and Volcano Monitoringp. 400
An Example of Assessing the Role of Hydrothermal Processes During Unrest: Solfatara (Phlegrean Fields Caldera, Italy)p. 404
Discussion and Conclusionsp. 409
Acknowledgmentsp. 410
Referencesp. 410
Deciphering Causes of Unrest at Explosive Collapse Calderas: Recent Advances and Future Challenges of Joint Time-Lapse Gravimetric and Ground Deformation Studiesp. 417
Introductionp. 418
The Subsurface Beneath Calderas: Hydrothermal Versus Magmatic Reservoirsp. 419
Joint Ground Deformation and Gravimetric Surveyp. 420
Vertical Gravity-Height Gradientsp. 423
Single and Distributed Sourcesp. 424
The Search for Causative Sources of Unrest: Recent Examples of Integrated Studies from the Long Valley, Campi Flegrei and Las Canadas Calderasp. 427
The Problem of Aliasing of Time-Lapse Micro-Gravity Datap. 437
The Effect of Lateral Discontinuities on Ground Deformation and Residual Gravity Changesp. 437
Summary, Conclusions and Outlookp. 439
Acknowledgementsp. 442
Referencesp. 442
The Failure Forecast Method: Review and Application for the Real-Time Detection of Precursory Patterns at Reawakening Volcanoesp. 447
Introductionp. 448
Theory of Precursorsp. 449
The Theory of the Material Failure Forecast Method (FFM)p. 450
Techniques of Analysisp. 453
Viscoelastic Modelp. 453
Seismicity as the Observable for FFMp. 454
FFM Applied to the Studies of Volcanoesp. 456
Conclusionsp. 465
Acknowledgementsp. 466
Referencesp. 466
Perspectives on the Application of the Geostatistical Approach to Volcano Forecasting at Different Time Scalesp. 471
Introductionp. 472
The Probabilistic Approachp. 473
The Geostatistical Approachp. 474
Case Studiesp. 477
Conclusions and Perspectivesp. 484
Acknowledgementsp. 485
Referencesp. 485
Subject Indexp. 489
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780444531650
ISBN-10: 0444531653
Series: Developments in Volcanology
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 516
Published: 28th May 2008
Publisher: Elsevier Science & Technology
Country of Publication: GB
Dimensions (cm): 24.0 x 16.5  x 2.54
Weight (kg): 1.09
Edition Number: 1

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