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Buoyancy Effects in Fluids : Cambridge Monographs on Mechanics and Applied Mathematics - J. S. Turner

Buoyancy Effects in Fluids

Cambridge Monographs on Mechanics and Applied Mathematics

By: J. S. Turner, Mark J. Ablowitz (Editor), S. H. Davis (Editor), E. J. Hinch (Editor), A. Iserles (Editor)

Paperback Published: 18th February 1980
ISBN: 9780521297264
Number Of Pages: 412

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The phenomena treated in this book all depend on the action of gravity on small density differences in a non-rotating fluid. The author gives a connected account of the various motions which can be driven or influenced by buoyancy forces in a stratified fluid, including internal waves, turbulent shear flows and buoyant convection. This excellent introduction to a rapidly developing field, first published in 1973, can be used as the basis of graduate courses in university departments of meteorology, oceanography and various branches of engineering. This edition is reprinted with corrections, and extra references have been added to allow readers to bring themselves up to date on specific topics. Professor Turner is a physicist with a special interest in laboratory modelling of small-scale geophysical processes. An important feature is the superb illustration of the text with many fine photographs of laboratory experiments and natural phenomena.

Prefacep. xiii
Introduction and Preliminariesp. 1
The topics to be discussedp. 1
Equilibrium and departures from itp. 3
The equations of motion and various approximationsp. 6
Basic parameters of heterogeneous flowsp. 11
Linear Internal Wavesp. 14
Waves at a boundary between homogeneous layersp. 14
Progressive waves in deep waterp. 15
Waves between layers of finite thicknessp. 18
Standing wavesp. 19
Waves in a continuously stratified fluidp. 21
Description in terms of modesp. 22
Description in terms of raysp. 24
Laboratory experiments on waves in bounded regionsp. 29
Waves in a moving stratified fluidp. 31
Velocity constant with heightp. 31
Lee waves with varying properties in the verticalp. 34
Reversals of velocity and critical layersp. 37
Weak non-linearities: interactions between wavesp. 39
The mechanism of resonant interactionp. 39
Interactions of interfacial wavesp. 41
Interactions with continuous stratificationp. 44
Finite Amplitude Motions in Stably Stratified Fluidsp. 48
Internal waves of finite amplitudep. 48
Interfacial wavesp. 48
Cnoidal and solitary wavesp. 52
Waves and flows in a density gradientp. 55
Finite amplitude lee wavesp. 58
Internal hydraulics and related problemsp. 64
Steady frictionless flow of a thin layerp. 64
Internal hydraulic jumpsp. 66
Flow down a slopep. 68
The 'lock exchange' problemp. 70
Gravity currents and nosesp. 72
Slow motions in a stratified fluidp. 76
The problem of selective withdrawalp. 76
Blocking ahead of an obstaclep. 79
Upstream wakes and boundary layersp. 82
Viscous diffusive flowsp. 86
Instability and the Production of Turbulencep. 91
The stability of a free shear layerp. 92
The various types of instabilityp. 92
The Kelvin-Helmholtz mechanismp. 94
Interfaces of finite thicknessp. 97
Observations of the breakdown of parallel stratified flowsp. 102
The combined effects of viscosity and stratificationp. 107
Viscous effects at an interfacep. 107
Thermally stratified plane Poiseuille flowp. 108
Flows along a sloping boundaryp. 111
Transition to turbulencep. 114
Mechanisms for the generation of turbulencep. 116
Classification of the various mechanismsp. 116
Flows near boundariesp. 118
Shear instabilities produced by interfacial wavesp. 120
The interaction between wave modesp. 123
Internal instabilities with continuous stratificationp. 124
Turbulent Shear Flows in a Stratified Fluidp. 127
Velocity and density profiles near a horizontal boundaryp. 127
The logarithmic boundary layerp. 128
The effect of a buoyancy fluxp. 130
Forced and free convectionp. 133
Constant-flux layers in stable stratificationp. 136
Theories of turbulence in a stratified shear flowp. 138
Similarity theories of turbulence and diffusionp. 139
The spectrum of nearly inertial turbulencep. 140
Arguments based on the governing equationsp. 145
Observations and experiments on stratified shear flowsp. 151
The generation and collapse of turbulent wakesp. 151
The suppression of turbulence at an interior shear layerp. 154
Stratified flows in pipes, channels and estuariesp. 157
Longitudinal mixing and advectionp. 161
Buoyant Convection from Isolated Sourcesp. 165
Plumes in a uniform environmentp. 167
Axisymmetric turbulent plumesp. 167
The entrainment assumptionp. 170
Forced plumesp. 173
Vertical two-dimensional plumesp. 176
Inclined plumes and turbulent gravity currentsp. 178
A modified entrainment assumptionp. 178
Slowly varying flowsp. 180
Laboratory experiments and their applicationsp. 181
Detailed profile measurementsp. 186
Thermals in a uniform environmentp. 186
Dimensional arguments and laboratory experimentsp. 186
Buoyant vortex ringsp. 189
'Starting plumes'p. 191
Line thermals and bent-over plumesp. 192
The non-uniform environmentp. 194
Motions in an unstable environmentp. 194
Plumes in a stable environmentp. 196
Forced plumes and vortex rings in a stable environmentp. 200
Environmental turbulencep. 203
Convection from Heated Surfacesp. 207
The theory of convection between horizontal platesp. 208
The governing parametersp. 208
Linear stability theoryp. 210
Finite amplitude convectionp. 211
Laboratory and numerical experiments on parallel plate convectionp. 215
Observations of laminar convectionp. 216
Measurements at larger Rayleigh numbersp. 219
Numerical experimentsp. 222
The interaction between convective elements and their environmentp. 226
The formation of plumes or thermals near a horizontal boundaryp. 226
The environment as an ensemble of convection elementsp. 230
Convection from small sources in a confined regionp. 231
Penetrative convectionp. 234
Convection with other shapes of boundaryp. 239
A heated vertical wallp. 241
Buoyancy layers at vertical and sloping boundariesp. 243
Convection in a slotp. 246
Double-Diffusive Convectionp. 251
The stability problemp. 251
The mechanism of instabilityp. 251
Linear stability analysisp. 253
The form of the convection cellsp. 257
Finite amplitude calculationsp. 259
The formation of layers: experiments and observationsp. 262
The 'diffusive' regimep. 262
The 'finger' regimep. 266
Side boundaries and horizontal gradientsp. 267
Related observations in the oceanp. 270
The fluxes across an interfacep. 273
Measurements in the 'diffusive' regimep. 274
The time-history of several convecting layersp. 278
Fluxes and structure at a 'finger' interfacep. 280
The thickness of a 'finger' interfacep. 283
Convection in a region of variable depthp. 285
Mixing Across Density Interfacesp. 288
Laboratory experimentsp. 288
Stirring with oscillating gridsp. 288
Mixing driven by a surface stressp. 292
The influence of molecular processesp. 295
Comparison of various methods of stirringp. 297
Geophysical applicationsp. 299
The wind-mixed surface layerp. 299
Seasonal changes of a thermoclinep. 301
Mixing at an atmospheric inversionp. 306
Other factors limiting the depth of a mixed layerp. 310
Internal mixing Processesp. 313
The observational datap. 313
Critical Richardson number criteriap. 317
Examples of equilibrium conditionsp. 318
Non-equilibrium conditions: step formationp. 319
Energetics of a layered systemp. 322
Wave-induced mixingp. 325
Mixing at existing interfacesp. 325
Formation of layers from a smooth gradientp. 327
Statistical aspects of wave generation and breakingp. 330
Waves and turbulence in large scale flowsp. 334
Bibliography and Author Indexp. 338
Recent Publicationsp. 359
Subject Indexp. 362
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780521297264
ISBN-10: 0521297265
Series: Cambridge Monographs on Mechanics and Applied Mathematics
Audience: Professional
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 412
Published: 18th February 1980
Country of Publication: GB
Dimensions (cm): 22.0 x 14.68  x 2.59
Weight (kg): 0.58