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Building Anatomy : An Illustrated Guide To How Structures Work - Iver Wahl

Building Anatomy

An Illustrated Guide To How Structures Work

By: Iver Wahl

Hardcover Published: 7th December 2006
ISBN: 9780071432139
Number Of Pages: 288

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ELIMINATE COSTLY AND POTENTIALLY DISASTEROUS CONCEPUTAL ERRORS IN YOUR NEXT STRUCTURAL DESIGN

Make sure your next building project is free of the conceptual errors that can cause structural failure with McGraw Hill's "Building Anatomy: An Illustrated Guide to How Structures Work."

Packed with a wealth of informative diagrams and illustrations, this essential volume drills deep into the concepts behind structural systems to give you a critical understanding of how they work. From potential loads, load combinations, and superstructure to lateral support systems, foundations, and site soil and geology, Building Anatomy can help you design structures that will stand the test of time.

Written in clear, easy-to-understand language by an award-winning architect and professor, "Building Anatomy" delivers easy access to critical information, to help you: Select structural systems based on the pros and cons of each system Size and arrange major structural components Identify concerns for each type of structural system Anticipate probable failure scenarios Explain each system's behavior under loads such as seismic and wind Understand construction issues encountered during fabrication and erection of each structure type And more

With its critical information, comprehensive coverage, and indispensable illustrations, "Building Anatomy" delivers the nuts-and-bolts guidance you need to avoid conceptual mistakes during structural design. You can't afford to work without it

Prefacep. xvii
Acknowledgmentsp. xix
Overviewp. 3
Definition of Structurep. 3
Importance of Structurep. 3
Components of a Building Structurep. 3
Classifications of Loadsp. 4
Tributary Areasp. 4
Forces and Vectorsp. 5
Load Propagationp. 5
Load Scenariosp. 6
Load combinationsp. 6
Construction loadsp. 6
Superstructurep. 6
Classification systemp. 6
Common alternativesp. 7
Structural creativityp. 7
Lateral Support Systemp. 7
Foundationp. 7
Soil and Geologyp. 7
Stress and Strainp. 8
General discussionp. 8
Simple stressesp. 8
Complex stressesp. 8
Structural Design Goalsp. 8
Safetyp. 8
Valuep. 8
Fitnessp. 9
Compatibilityp. 9
Flexibilityp. 9
Big Conceptual Design Decisionsp. 9
Structural Design Guidancep. 9
Formal and informal backgroundp. 9
Principlesp. 10
Selection of a Structural Systemp. 11
Functional footprintp. 11
Spansp. 11
Aestheticsp. 11
Costp. 11
Constructabilityp. 12
Securityp. 12
Reusep. 12
Preliminary Layout of Structural Systemsp. 12
Module matchingp. 12
Functional patternsp. 12
Structural optimumsp. 13
Production and transportation constraintsp. 13
Structural recognition of critical detailsp. 13
Recognition of structural problemsp. 13
Special Structural Situationsp. 14
Long span structuresp. 14
Seismic resistancep. 14
Wind resistancep. 14
Tall buildingsp. 14
Temporary structuresp. 15
Processp. 17
Structure and Architectural Designp. 17
Main Conceptual Decisionsp. 17
Relative design priorityp. 17
Accommodation of internal functionp. 18
Type and magnitude of design loadsp. 18
Components of the structural systemp. 18
Structural materialsp. 18
Interaction with external systemsp. 18
Interaction with internal building systemsp. 19
Cultural and economic settingp. 19
Specific significant structural opportunities and problemsp. 19
Scope of structural innovation neededp. 19
Preliminary configuration, sizes, and materials for the structurep. 19
Coordination of envelope and structurep. 20
Defined contribution of selected structure to building aestheticp. 20
Fabrication and erection process and feasibilityp. 20
Cost feasibility of the structurep. 20
Sequence of Design Activitiesp. 20
Players and Responsibilitiesp. 21
Products of the Design Processp. 22
Code searchp. 22
Load estimates summaryp. 22
Precedent researchp. 22
Schematic drawingsp. 23
Conceptual drawingsp. 23
Typical and critical detailsp. 23
Specific Design Methods and Toolsp. 23
Use of checklistsp. 23
Use of rules of thumbp. 24
Use of tablesp. 24
Schematic and conceptual graphicsp. 24
Study modelsp. 24
Mining of standard referencesp. 24
Computer softwarep. 25
Structural Failurep. 27
Definition of Structural Failurep. 27
Goals Related to Structural Failurep. 27
Failure as an Event in Timep. 28
Benefits of Structure Failuresp. 28
Common Causes of Structural Failurep. 28
General Modes of Structural Failurep. 29
Stability failuresp. 29
Strength failuresp. 29
Stiffness failuresp. 30
Local vs. Global Failurep. 31
Failure Scenariosp. 31
Insights from disaster reconnaissancep. 31
Role changesp. 31
The work/energy budgetp. 32
Summaryp. 32
Loadsp. 35
Load Predictionp. 35
Common Load Estimation Toolsp. 35
Conservative Load Estimationp. 36
Loads in Perspectivep. 36
Partial List of Significant Building Loadsp. 36
Types of Loadsp. 37
Internal and externalp. 37
Vertical and lateral (horizontal)p. 37
Dead and live loadsp. 37
Equivalent uniform loadp. 37
Point, distributed, and uniformly varyingp. 38
Impact, inertial, static, and resonantp. 38
Preliminary Sizingp. 38
System capabilityp. 38
Weight of building materialsp. 39
Superstructure/foundation relationshipp. 39
Load Combinationsp. 39
Review Questionsp. 39
Lateral Supportp. 43
Lateral Loadsp. 43
Difference between Wind and Seismic Loadsp. 43
Earthquakesp. 44
General earthquake behaviorsp. 44
Seismic wavesp. 44
Measurementp. 44
Instrumentsp. 44
Scalesp. 44
Infrastructure Impactp. 45
Building Site Impactp. 45
Building Impactp. 46
Site/Building Interactionp. 48
Shallow foundation interactionp. 48
Structural Response to Seismic Loadsp. 49
Specific Types of Seismic Resistant Strategiesp. 50
Tsunamip. 51
Blastp. 51
Blast sourcesp. 51
Blast locationp. 51
Blast directionp. 52
Target hardeningp. 52
Stress reversalsp. 52
Windp. 52
General issuesp. 52
Building effectsp. 52
Site issuesp. 53
Wind design guidelinesp. 53
Structural response to wind and seismic loadsp. 54
Other lateral support mechanismsp. 56
Migration of the lateral support mechanismp. 58
Review Questionsp. 58
Geology and Soilp. 61
General Issuesp. 61
Geologyp. 61
Rock classificationp. 61
Soilsp. 62
Generalp. 62
Horizonsp. 63
Soil classificationsp. 63
Soil Evaluationp. 64
Documentationp. 65
Some common subsurface concernsp. 66
Topographyp. 68
Review Questionsp. 69
Foundationsp. 71
Structural Role of the Foundationp. 71
Design Considerationsp. 71
Types of Foundationp. 72
Shallow foundationsp. 72
Deep foundationsp. 75
Moment foundationsp. 77
Foundations on slopesp. 79
Lateral Loads below the Ground Surfacep. 79
Frost heavep. 79
Soil pressurep. 79
Water pressurep. 79
Vertical Upliftp. 80
Vertical Load Distribution below Footingsp. 80
Adjacent Foundationsp. 82
Shoring and Underpinningp. 82
Excavationsp. 83
Slopesp. 84
Slope stabilityp. 84
Respect existing slopesp. 84
Retaining wallsp. 85
Retaining wall failuresp. 86
Bulkheads and cofferdamsp. 86
Review Questionsp. 88
Cable Structuresp. 91
Generalp. 91
History and Significant Examplesp. 91
Examples in naturep. 91
Non-building examplesp. 91
Building examplesp. 92
Behavior under Loadp. 92
Stressesp. 92
Response by changing shapep. 92
Resolving inherent instabilityp. 93
Method of Supportp. 94
Cable Arrangementsp. 95
Failuresp. 95
Optimum Configurationp. 96
Types or categoriesp. 96
Functional footprintp. 96
Span rangep. 96
Nomenclaturep. 96
Cable supported framesp. 96
Pattern of Growthp. 98
Cable System Designp. 98
Advantagesp. 98
Disadvantagesp. 98
Design methodsp. 98
Aesthetic potentialp. 99
Detailsp. 100
Structural detailsp. 100
Redundant cablesp. 100
Related envelopep. 100
Constructionp. 101
Factory fabricationp. 101
Related lateral supportp. 101
Review Questionsp. 102
Archesp. 105
Continuityp. 105
History and Examplesp. 105
Historyp. 105
Selected building examplesp. 106
Examples in naturep. 106
Some selected non-building examplesp. 106
Nomenclaturep. 106
Behavior under Loadp. 106
Funicular curvesp. 106
Resultants by parallelogram methodp. 109
Resultants and archesp. 109
Pressure linep. 110
Lateral thrustp. 110
Structural logic in archesp. 111
Types of Archesp. 112
By configurationp. 112
By materialp. 113
Arch Failuresp. 113
Common failure modesp. 113
Need for hingesp. 113
Inadequate buttressingp. 115
Changes in loadingp. 116
Design of Archesp. 117
Typical approximate span rangesp. 117
Common Applicationsp. 118
Advantages of the systemp. 119
Disadvantages of the systemp. 119
Pattern of Growthp. 120
Functional Footprintp. 120
Designp. 120
Methodsp. 120
Aesthetic potentialp. 120
Arch Detailsp. 121
Lateral stabilityp. 121
Connectionsp. 121
Relating the weatherproofing envelope to the archp. 121
Constructionp. 121
Centeringp. 121
Types of centeringp. 122
Changes in curvaturep. 122
Striking the centeringp. 122
Review Questionsp. 123
Post and Beamp. 125
Generalp. 125
History and significant examplesp. 125
Beamsp. 126
Beam types or categoriesp. 126
Beam nomenclaturep. 130
Common applicationsp. 130
Beam behavior under loadp. 131
Columnsp. 139
Column nomenclaturep. 139
Column types or categoriesp. 140
Column behavior under loadp. 141
Optimum post and beam configurationp. 143
Failures in post and beam systemsp. 147
Functional Footprintp. 147
Pattern of Growthp. 148
Aesthetic Potentialp. 148
Constructionp. 149
Design Methodsp. 150
Review Questionsp. 151
Rigid Framesp. 153
Descriptionp. 153
History and Significant Examplesp. 153
Historyp. 153
Building examplesp. 153
Types or Categoriesp. 155
Classified by shapep. 155
By Number and location of jointsp. 156
Nomenclaturep. 156
Common Applicationsp. 157
Behavior under Loadp. 158
Arch action behaviorp. 158
Post and beam actionp. 158
Horizontal loadsp. 160
Implications on individual membersp. 161
Location of concentrated loadsp. 162
Effect of adjacent bents or baysp. 162
Effect of vertically stacked bents or baysp. 163
Behavior of gabled framesp. 164
Optimum Configurationp. 165
Functional Footprintp. 166
Pattern of Growthp. 166
Aesthetic Potentialp. 166
Constructionp. 167
Designp. 167
Review Questionsp. 168
Bearing Wall and Slabp. 171
Descriptionp. 171
Bearing wallp. 171
Slabp. 171
History and Significant Examplesp. 171
Historyp. 171
Building examplesp. 172
Examples in naturep. 172
Non-building examplesp. 172
Types or Categoriesp. 172
Bearing walls by materialp. 172
Bearing walls by configurationp. 172
Structural slabs by materialp. 173
Structural slabs by configurationp. 174
Nomenclaturep. 174
Common Applicationsp. 174
Behavior under Loadp. 174
Slabs and bearing wallsp. 174
Slabsp. 175
Slab failuresp. 177
Behavior of Bearing Walls under Loadp. 179
Bearing wall failuresp. 180
Optimum Configurationp. 182
Functional Footprintp. 183
Pattern of Growthp. 184
Design Methodsp. 184
Aesthetic Potentialp. 184
Constructionp. 184
Sequence of constructionp. 186
Review Questionsp. 188
Trussesp. 191
Generalp. 191
Descriptionp. 191
History and Significant Examplesp. 191
Building examplesp. 191
Non-building examplesp. 192
Types or Categoriesp. 193
By materialp. 193
By configurationp. 196
Trusses by positionp. 196
Nomenclaturep. 197
Common Applicationsp. 199
Architectural applicationsp. 199
Nonarchitectural applicationsp. 199
Behavior under Loadp. 199
Configuration stabilityp. 199
Path of load propagationp. 200
Member stresses under vertical loadsp. 200
Stresses in truss supportsp. 201
Stresses in jointsp. 201
Under lateral loadsp. 202
The problem of upliftp. 202
The problem of expansionp. 203
Failuresp. 203
Lateral load failuresp. 204
Local and global failuresp. 205
Long span collapse and large occupancyp. 205
Trusses and firep. 206
Optimum Configurationp. 206
Total systemp. 206
Membersp. 206
Jointsp. 207
Soil and foundationsp. 208
Related lateral support systemp. 208
Related envelopep. 208
Functional Footprintp. 209
Pattern of Growthp. 209
Design Methodsp. 210
Aesthetic Potentialp. 210
Constructionp. 211
Review Questionsp. 212
Space Framesp. 215
General Descriptionp. 215
History and Significant Examplesp. 215
Types or Categoriesp. 216
By materialp. 216
By configurationp. 218
By positionp. 219
Nomenclaturep. 219
Space trussp. 219
Tensegrity structuresp. 222
Common Applicationsp. 223
Architectural applicationsp. 223
Non-architectural applicationsp. 223
Behavior under Loadp. 224
General commentsp. 224
Truss-like behaviorp. 224
Slab-like behaviorp. 225
Path of load propagationp. 227
Member stresses under vertical loadsp. 227
Stresses in space truss supportsp. 228
Under lateral loadsp. 228
The problem at the foundationp. 228
The problem of expansionp. 229
Failuresp. 229
Excessive deflectionsp. 229
Stability failuresp. 229
Member bucklingp. 229
Wind failuresp. 230
Local and global failuresp. 230
Failure during a firep. 231
Optimum Configurationp. 231
Total systemp. 231
Membersp. 231
Supportsp. 231
Jointsp. 232
Envelopep. 232
Functional footprintp. 233
Pattern of growthp. 233
Design Methodsp. 233
Aesthetic Potentialp. 234
Constructionp. 234
Repetitive manufacturep. 234
Speed of erectionp. 235
Need for space and heavy equipmentp. 235
Manpower requirements smallp. 235
Related soil and foundationp. 235
Related envelopep. 235
Sequence of constructionp. 236
Detailsp. 236
Review Questionsp. 236
Folded Platesp. 239
Descriptionp. 239
History and Significant Examplesp. 239
Historyp. 239
Building examplesp. 240
Non-building examplesp. 240
Types or Categoriesp. 240
By materialp. 240
By configurationp. 241
Nomenclaturep. 242
Common Applicationsp. 244
Behavior under Loadp. 244
The inclined platep. 244
Beam-like behaviorp. 245
Slab-like behaviorp. 246
Bearing wall behaviorp. 246
Global behaviorp. 246
Design Methodsp. 247
Optimum Configurationp. 247
Structural systemp. 247
Mechanical/electrical systemsp. 248
Openingsp. 248
Foundationsp. 249
Jointsp. 249
Related soil and foundationp. 249
Topographyp. 249
Related lateral supportp. 250
Related envelopep. 250
Functional Footprintp. 250
Pattern of Growthp. 250
Aesthetic Potentialp. 251
Constructionp. 251
Fabricationp. 251
Erectionp. 251
Review Questionsp. 252
Vaultsp. 255
Descriptionp. 255
History and Significant Examplesp. 255
Examples in naturep. 255
Historyp. 255
Non-building examplesp. 258
Nomenclaturep. 258
Types or Categoriesp. 259
By materialp. 259
By configurationp. 259
Behavior under Load and Failuresp. 260
Arch-like behaviorp. 261
Bearing wall behaviorp. 261
Folded plate behaviorp. 261
Short and long vaultsp. 262
Design Methodsp. 263
Optimum Configurationp. 263
Functional Footprintp. 265
Pattern of Growthp. 265
Aesthetic Potentialp. 265
Constructionp. 266
Fabricationp. 266
Review Questionsp. 266
Domesp. 269
Descriptionp. 269
History and Significant Examplesp. 269
Nomenclaturep. 271
Types or Categoriesp. 273
Common Applicationsp. 273
Behavior under Loadp. 274
Load propagationp. 274
Stressesp. 276
Failuresp. 277
Optimum Configurationp. 277
Functional Footprintp. 281
Pattern of Growthp. 281
Designp. 281
Constructionp. 282
Review Questionsp. 283
Shellsp. 285
Backgroundp. 285
Types and Categoriesp. 285
Historyp. 289
Examplesp. 289
Examples in naturep. 289
Non-building examplesp. 289
Building examplesp. 289
Nomenclaturep. 290
Common Applicationsp. 291
Behavior under Loadp. 291
General observationp. 291
Stressesp. 291
Load propagationp. 292
Failuresp. 293
Optimum Configurationp. 293
Functional footprintp. 294
Pattern of growthp. 294
Constructionp. 294
Designp. 296
Aesthetic potentialp. 297
Review Questionsp. 297
Tentsp. 299
Descriptionp. 299
History and Significant Examplesp. 299
Types or Categoriesp. 301
Nomenclaturep. 302
Common Applicationsp. 303
Behavior under Loadp. 304
Optimum Configurationp. 307
Constructionp. 312
Designp. 313
Review Questionsp. 316
Pneumaticsp. 319
Descriptionp. 319
History and Significant Examplesp. 319
Types or Categoriesp. 319
Common Applicationsp. 323
Behavior under Loadp. 323
Optimum Configurationp. 325
Constructionp. 328
Designp. 328
Review Questionsp. 329
Hybrids and Exoticsp. 331
Descriptionp. 331
Hybridsp. 331
Exoticsp. 331
History and Significant Examplesp. 331
Examples in naturep. 331
Building examplesp. 332
Choice between Tradition and Innovationp. 333
Traditionp. 333
Innovationp. 333
Types or Categoriesp. 335
Exoticsp. 335
Hybridsp. 335
Common Applicationsp. 335
Behavior under Loadp. 336
Exoticsp. 336
Hybridsp. 336
Both exotics and combinationsp. 337
Optimum Configurationp. 337
Functional Footprintp. 337
Pattern of Growthp. 337
Aesthetic Potentialp. 338
Constructionp. 338
Review Questionsp. 339
Structural Selectionp. 341
Backgroundp. 341
Functional Issuesp. 341
Spatial aspectsp. 341
Occupancy loads by functional usep. 343
Probable future usep. 343
Circulationp. 343
Minimum size for fire egress routesp. 343
Code loads in hallwaysp. 344
Support for stairs and elevatorsp. 344
Location, size, and shape of circulation openingsp. 344
Site Contextp. 344
Physical settingp. 344
Geology and soil adjacent to, and under the buildingp. 345
Topographyp. 345
Climatep. 345
Adjacent structuresp. 345
Probable natural disastersp. 346
Cultural Settingp. 346
Local cultural traditionp. 346
Construction annoyancep. 347
Code constraintsp. 347
Zoning constraintsp. 347
Land ownershipp. 348
Probable man-made disastersp. 348
Economic Issuesp. 348
Initial costsp. 348
Equipmentp. 348
Experiencep. 349
Profitp. 349
Financingp. 350
Consultant feesp. 351
Salvage rewardsp. 351
Aesthetic Issuesp. 353
Urban Settingp. 353
Integration with Other Building Systemsp. 354
Passive energyp. 354
Illuminationp. 355
Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC)p. 355
Electricalp. 355
Waterp. 356
Drainage, waste, and ventingp. 356
Acousticsp. 356
Building Envelopep. 357
Modular support of/for the building skinp. 357
Thermal expansion and contractionp. 358
Accommodation of other types of movementp. 358
Detailing easep. 358
Otherp. 358
Support, openings, and continuity for elevators and escalatorsp. 358
Vertical continuity for roof drainagep. 358
Safetyp. 358
Serviceabilityp. 359
Designabilityp. 359
Realizabilityp. 359
Durabilityp. 359
Review Questionsp. 359
Structural Creativityp. 361
Alternative Forms of Thoughtp. 361
Getting the Right Mind Setp. 361
Setting the Scenep. 363
Some Selected Creative Design Methodsp. 363
A Creative Structural Design Processp. 363
Review Questionsp. 365
Quality Assurancep. 367
Backgroundp. 367
Industrial quality assurance programsp. 367
Quality in the building industryp. 367
Single matching quality responsibility/authorityp. 367
Motivationp. 368
Definitionsp. 368
Two Types of Qualityp. 369
Design qualityp. 369
Quality of conformancep. 369
Planning and Organization for Qualityp. 369
Planningp. 369
Organizationp. 370
Defects May Only Be a Symptomp. 371
Finish Goods Acceptancep. 371
Quality conformancep. 371
Design qualityp. 371
Specific QA Activitiesp. 372
Quality surveysp. 372
Quality inspectionsp. 372
Quality auditsp. 373
Quality Accountabilityp. 373
Bartering Qualityp. 373
Quality Improvementp. 374
Rewards for Qualityp. 374
Quality Summaryp. 374
Review Questionsp. 375
Bibliographyp. 377
Illustration Creditsp. 381
Indexp. 385
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780071432139
ISBN-10: 0071432132
Series: McGraw-Hill Construction
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 288
Published: 7th December 2006
Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education - Europe
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 26.0 x 18.0  x 3.0
Weight (kg): 0.95
Edition Number: 1