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Broadband Wireless Access : The Springer International Engineering and Computer Science - Benny Bing

Broadband Wireless Access

The Springer International Engineering and Computer Science

Hardcover Published: 30th September 2000
ISBN: 9780792379553
Number Of Pages: 262

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This chapter has discussed how a commonbroadcast medium can be shared among many contending users. Multiple access protocols differ primarily by the amount of coordination needed to control potentially conflicting packet transmissions. Ato neextreme is random access where no coordinationis provideda ndp acket collisions arep ossible. Atthe other endo fthe spectrum, the class of fixed assignment access protocols eliminates collisions entirely butpay the price ofadditional overhead required forscheduling user access. Hybrid access protocolsb etweenthese two extremes exist While these protocols attempt to combine the advantages ofrandom andfixed access, they also suffer the c ombined drawbacks and overhead ofboth classes of access schemes. Amongt he many factors that determine the performance ofa n access protocol include the propagation delay/packet transmission timeratio, the message arrival process, the types of feedback information available, the user population, and the ability of the user to sense the activities in the network. BIBLIOGRAPHY [ABRA93] Abramson, N. , Multiple Access Communications , IEEE Press, 1993. [BERT92] Bertsekas, D. and Gallager, R. , Data Networks , Prentice Hall, 1992. [CHOU83]Chou,W, ComputerCommunications Volume1:Principles , Prentice Hall, 1983. [CIDO87] Cidon, I. andSidi, M. , "Erasures and Noise in Splitting Multiple Access Algorithms", IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, Vol. 33, No. 1, January 1987, pp. 132 - 140. [CIDO88] Cidon, I, Kodesh, H. and Sidi, M. , "Erasure, Capture and Random Power Level Selectionin Multiple Access Systems", IEEE Transactions on Communications , Vol. 3 6,N o. 3,March 1988, pp. 263 - 271.

Dedicationp. v
Table of Contentsp. vii
Prefacep. xvii
Overview of Wireless Networks
Signal Coveragep. 1
Propagation Mechanismsp. 2
Multipathp. 2
Delay Spreadp. 3
Coherence Bandwidthp. 4
Doppler Spreadp. 5
Shadow Fadingp. 6
Radio Propagation Modelingp. 6
Narrowband and Wideband Channel Modelsp. 6
Signal Attenuationp. 7
Received Power Characteristicsp. 7
High Frequency Propagationp. 8
Channel Characteristicsp. 9
Gaussian Channelp. 9
Rayleigh Channelp. 9
Rician Channelp. 10
Fading Mitigation Methodsp. 10
Antenna Diversityp. 11
Equalizationp. 11
Error Controlp. 13
Multicarrier Transmissionp. 13
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexingp. 14
Wideband Systemsp. 15
Interferencep. 15
Cochannel Interferencep. 16
Mitigation Techniquesp. 17
Modulationp. 17
Linear versus Constant Envelopep. 17
Coherent versus Non-Coherent Detectionp. 18
Multicarrier Modulationp. 19
Signal Duplexing Techniquesp. 20
Spectrum Considerationsp. 20
Radio Design Considerationsp. 20
Implementation Considerationsp. 21
Mobility and Handoffp. 21
Intracell versus Intercell Handoffp. 22
Mobile-Intiated versus Network-Initiated Handoffp. 22
Forward versus Backward Handoffp. 23
Hard versus Soft Handoffp. 23
Channel Assignment Strategiesp. 24
Synchronizationp. 24
Power Managementp. 25
Spectrum Allocationp. 25
Summaryp. 26
Bibliographyp. 27
Wireless Access Protocol Design
Traffic Source Characterizationp. 31
Periodic Trafficp. 31
Bursty Trafficp. 33
Characterizing Applicationsp. 34
Information Typesp. 34
Delivery Requirementsp. 34
Symmetry of Connectionp. 35
Communication Requirementsp. 35
Broadband Servicesp. 35
Resource Sharingp. 36
Resource Sharing Principlesp. 36
The Global Queuep. 37
Measuring Resource Usagep. 38
Resource Sharing in Wideband Wireless Networksp. 38
Resource Reservation and Application Adaptationp. 39
Admission Controlp. 39
Performance Analysisp. 40
Performance Evaluationp. 41
Efficiencyp. 42
Throughputp. 42
Response Timep. 43
Fairnessp. 43
Implementation Considerationsp. 43
Centralized versus Distributed Designp. 43
Mobility versus Portabilityp. 44
Integration with Higher Layer Functionsp. 45
Summaryp. 45
Bibliographyp. 45
Multiple Access Communications
Characterizing the Access Problemp. 49
General Characteristicsp. 50
Classificationp. 50
Framework for Discussionp. 52
General Network Assumptionsp. 53
Collisionsp. 53
User Populationp. 54
Propagation Delayp. 55
Channel Feedbackp. 55
Full and Limited Sensingp. 56
Summaryp. 57
Bibliographyp. 57
Fixed Allocation Access Protocols
Frequency Division Multiple Accessp. 61
Disadvantagesp. 62
Implementationp. 62
Time Division Multiple Accessp. 62
Disadvantagesp. 63
Implementationp. 64
Comparison of FDMA and TDMAp. 64
Performance Evaluationp. 65
Frequency Division Multiple Accessp. 65
Time Division Multiple Accessp. 66
Statistical Multiplexingp. 68
Polling Protocolsp. 69
Performance Analysisp. 70
Probingp. 71
Adaptive Probingp. 72
Service Disciplines in Polling Systemsp. 73
Summaryp. 73
Bibliographyp. 74
Contention Protocols
General Characteristicsp. 77
ALOHA Protocolsp. 77
Unslotted ALOHAp. 78
Slotted ALOHAp. 79
Disciplined ALOHAp. 80
Spread ALOHAp. 81
Performance Analysis of ALOHA Protocolsp. 82
Throughput Analysisp. 83
Average Number of Retransmissionsp. 84
Acknowledgmentsp. 85
Power Capturep. 86
Analyzing the Slotted ALOHA Protocol with Capturep. 86
Controlled ALOHAp. 87
Asymmetric Traffic Loadp. 88
Scheduling Retransmissionsp. 90
Delay Analysisp. 93
Stability Problems in ALOHA Protocolsp. 94
Stability Characterizationp. 95
Dynamic Controlsp. 96
Feedback Algorithmsp. 96
The Binary Tree Algorithmp. 97
Analyzing the Tree Algorithmp. 97
Improving the Tree Algorithmp. 100
The Splitting Algorithmp. 101
Implementation Considerationsp. 102
Carrier Sense Multiple Accessp. 103
CSMA Variationsp. 103
Performance Considerationsp. 104
Implementation Considerationsp. 105
CSMA with Collision Detectionp. 105
Virtual-Time CSMAp. 107
Busy Tone Multiple Accessp. 108
Adaptive Protocolsp. 108
The URN Protocolp. 108
Hybrid Access Protocolsp. 109
Split Reservation Upon Collisionp. 110
Mixed ALOHA Carrier Sensep. 110
Random Access Pollingp. 110
Summaryp. 111
Bibliographyp. 111
Spread Spectrum Multiple Access
Spread Spectrum Communicationsp. 119
Wideband Versus Narrowbandp. 121
Code Divisionp. 121
Time Capturep. 121
Collisions in SSMA Systemsp. 122
Direct Sequence Spread Spectrump. 123
Processing Gainp. 124
Direct Sequence Code Division Multiple Accessp. 124
Power Controlp. 127
Synchronizationp. 128
RAKE Receiverp. 128
Benefits of DSSSp. 129
Frequency Hopped Spread Spectrump. 130
Slow and Fast FHp. 130
Benefits FHSSp. 131
Spreading Code Protocolsp. 132
Common Codep. 132
Transmitter-Directed Codesp. 132
Receiver-Directed Codesp. 132
Single Code for Pairs of Usersp. 133
CDMA Network Designp. 133
Multirate CDMAp. 133
CDMA Receiversp. 134
Multiuser Detectionp. 134
Interference Cancellation and Suppressionp. 135
Multicarrier CDMAp. 135
Performance Analysisp. 136
Queuing Theory Modelingp. 136
Estimating the Number of Users in DS-CDMAp. 137
Comparing FDMA, TDMA, and CDMAp. 139
Advantages of CDMAp. 139
Disadvantages of CDMAp. 141
Summaryp. 142
Bibliographyp. 142
Reservation Protocols
General Characteristicsp. 147
Centralized and Distributedp. 148
Reservation-ALOHAp. 148
Implementation Considerationsp. 149
Performance Considerationsp. 149
Packet Reservation Multiple Accessp. 150
Dynamic Reservationp. 151
Implementation Considerationsp. 152
Performance Considerationsp. 152
Dynamic Reservation Multiple Accessp. 153
Round-Robin Reservation Schemep. 154
Split-Channel Reservation Multiple Accessp. 155
Integrated Access Schemep. 155
Demand Access Multiple Accessp. 155
Priority-Oriented Demand Assignmentp. 156
Announced Retransmission Random Accessp. 156
Minislotted Protocolsp. 157
Bit Map Access Protocolp. 158
Broadcast Recognition Access Methodp. 158
Multilevel Multiple Accessp. 158
Summaryp. 159
Bibliographyp. 160
Broadband Wireless Access Protocols
The 2.4 GHz IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN Standardp. 165
The Distributed Coordination Functionp. 166
Virtual Sensingp. 168
The Point Coordination Functionp. 170
The 5 GHz IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN Standardp. 171
The HIPERLAN Type 1 Wireless LAN Standardp. 172
The EY-NPMA MAC Protocolp. 172
Quality of Servicep. 175
The HIPERLAN Type 2 Wireless LAN Standardp. 175
HIPERLAN Type 2 MAC Protocolp. 176
HiperLAN Type 2 Frame Formatp. 177
QoS supportp. 178
Home Networksp. 179
HomeRF's Shared Wireless Access Protocolp. 179
Bluetooth's Access Mechanismp. 180
Wireless ATMp. 181
Simple Asynchronous Multiple Accessp. 181
Distributed Queuing Request Update Multiple Accessp. 182
MASCARAp. 183
WATMnet Access Protocolp. 184
AWACS Access Protocolp. 185
Satellite ATMp. 187
Multibeam Systemsp. 187
Multifrequency TDMAp. 188
Wireless Local Loopp. 189
MMDSp. 189
LMDSp. 190
Access Methods in LMDSp. 190
IMT-2000p. 190
Coverage Areas and Data Ratesp. 191
CDMA Proposalsp. 191
Wideband CDMAp. 192
Time-Duplexed CDMAp. 193
CDMA2000p. 193
TDMA Proposalsp. 194
Summaryp. 195
Bibliographyp. 195
A Generalized Broadband Wireless Access Protocol
Protocol Descriptionp. 199
Protocol Evaluationp. 203
Analysis of Randomized Slotted ALOHAp. 204
Throughput Analysisp. 205
Stability Analysisp. 206
Analysis of the Generalized Protocolp. 207
Throughput Analysisp. 212
Delay Analysisp. 214
Performance Comparisonp. 221
Traffic Load Balancingp. 223
Protocol Descriptionp. 226
Simulation Resultsp. 229
OPNET Simulation Modelsp. 232
OPNET Models for Generalized Protocolp. 233
User Model for Base Stationp. 233
User Model for User with Periodic Trafficp. 234
Process Model for Base Stationp. 234
Process Model for User with Periodic Trafficp. 236
OPNET Models for Traffic Load Balancingp. 238
User Model for Base Stationp. 239
User Model for User with Periodic Trafficp. 239
Process Model for Base Stationp. 240
Process Model for User with Periodic Trafficp. 240
Simulation Timep. 240
Formal Verification of Generalized Protocolp. 240
Correctnessp. 241
Safetyp. 241
Livenessp. 242
Summaryp. 243
Bibliographyp. 244
Queuing Theory Primer
The Poisson Processp. 247
Little's Theoremp. 248
The Single Server Queuep. 249
M/G/1 Queuep. 250
M/M/1 Queuep. 251
M/D/1 Queuep. 251
Conservation Lawsp. 252
Acronymsp. 253
About the Authorp. 258
Indexp. 259
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780792379553
ISBN-10: 0792379551
Series: The Springer International Engineering and Computer Science
Audience: General
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 262
Published: 30th September 2000
Publisher: SPRINGER VERLAG GMBH
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 24.28 x 15.95  x 2.13
Weight (kg): 0.6

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