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Botulinum and Tetanus Neurotoxins : Neurotransmission and Biomedical Aspects - Bibhuti R. DasGupta

Botulinum and Tetanus Neurotoxins

Neurotransmission and Biomedical Aspects

By: Bibhuti R. DasGupta (Editor)

Hardcover Published: 31st August 1993
ISBN: 9780306444128
Number Of Pages: 689

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Three days in Madison have thoroughly modified my view on clostridial neurotoxins. While still realizing the numerous activating, modifying and protective inputs, I cannot judge the meaningfulness of the meeting impartially. Neither may the reader expect a complete summary of all presentations. Collected in this volume, they speak for themselves without requiring an arbiter. Instead I shall write down my very personal opinions as a researcher who has studied clostridial neurotoxins for nearly 25 years. Comparable conferences have been rare during this time. A comprehensive symposium 4 on C. botulinum neurotoxins has been organized at Ft. Detrick. International conferences on tetanus have been held regularly under the auspices of the Wodd Health Organization. One or maximally two days of these meetings have been devoted to tetanus toxin and its actions whereas the sponsor and the majority of the participants have been interested mainly in epidemiology, prevention and treatment of tetanus as a disease (see refs. 5,6). Some aspects of clostridial neurotoxins have been addressed in the context of bacterial toxins, in particular in the biennial European workshops. 1-3,7,8 The Madison meeting differed from the previous ones in three aspects. First, it covered both tetanus and botulinum neurotoxins. The fusion was justified because of their huge similarities in primary structure, in their mode of action and in their cellular targets. Second, the meeting was not limited to toxins but drew some lines on which modern neurobiology might proceed.

Introductionp. 1
Current Concepts on the Mechanism of Action of Clostridial Neurotoxinsp. 5
Structure and Functions of NGF Receptorsp. 17
Therapeutic Potential of Neurotrophic Factors: The Role of Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor in Promoting Neuronal Survival and Recovery Following Neuronal Injuryp. 25
Tetanus Toxin as a Tool for Investigating the Structural Bases of Neurotropismp. 31
Paralysis by Botulinum Neurotoxins Uncovers Trophic Secretions at the Neuromuscular Junctionp. 45
Motor Nerve Terminal Morphology Following Botulinum A Toxin Injection in Humansp. 53
Botulinum Toxin Induced Muscle Denervation: A MRI Studyp. 63
Calcium-Independent Neurotransmitter Releasep. 69
Ca[superscript 2+] Dependent Evoked Quantal Neurotransmitter Release Does Not Necessarily Involve Exocytosis of Synaptic Vesiclesp. 71
Identification of Proteins Required for Ca[superscript 2+]-Triggered Secretionp. 87
Intracellular Control of Exocytosis in Chromaffin Cellsp. 95
PC12 Cells as a Model for Neuronal Secretionp. 105
Transmitter Release in Aplysia: Applicability of Quantal Models and Evidence for Postsynaptic Controlp. 117
The Mammalian Neuromuscular Junction as a Target Tissue for Protein Toxins That Block Exocytosisp. 129
Action of Botulinum Toxin on Artificial Models for Acetylcholine Transportp. 143
Exo-Endocytotic Recycling of Synaptic Vesicles in Developing Neuronsp. 153
Endosome Processing: Structural, Functional and Kinetic Interrelationsp. 165
Identification of Proteins Involved in Endosome Fusion: Implications for Toxin Activityp. 179
Factors Underlying the Characteristic Inhibition of the Neuronal Release of Transmitters by Tetanus and Various Botulinum Toxinsp. 191
Partial Characterization of Bovine Synaptosomal Proteins Adhered to by Botulinum and Tetanus Neurotoxinsp. 215
The Neurospecific Binding of Tetanus Toxin Is Mediated by a 20 kDa Protein and by Acidic Lipidsp. 221
Molecular Basis of Low pH-Dependent Membrane Translocation of Botulinum and Tetanus Neurotoxinsp. 231
Membrane Capacitance Measurement: Restoration of Calcium-Dependent Exocytosis Blocked by Botulinum A Neurotoxin in Bovine Chromaffin Cellsp. 237
Activation and Inactivation of Tetanus Toxin in Chromaffin Cellsp. 241
Tetanus Toxin and Protein Kinase Cp. 251
Tetanus Toxin Biotinylation and Localization of Binding Sites in Catecholaminergic Cultures and Granulesp. 255
Tetanus Toxin Inhibits a Membrane Guanylate Cyclase Transduction Systemp. 265
Tetanus Neurotoxin: (1) Immunological Roles of Fragments of the Toxin in Protection, and (2) Attempts to Identify Target Site(s) of Its Toxic Actionp. 273
Evidences for a Link between Proteolysis and the Inhibition of [[superscript 3]H]-Noradrenaline Release by the Light Chain of Tetanus Toxinp. 287
Tetanus Toxin as a Tool for Investigating the Consequences of Excessive Neuronal Excitationp. 291
Clinical Tetanus: (Spinal) Disinhibition or Not?p. 299
Effects of Botulinum Neurotoxin A on Protein Phosphorylation in Synaptosomesp. 311
Inhibition of Norepinephrine Secretion from Digitonin Permeabilized PC12 Cells by C. botulinum Type D Toxinp. 317
Long-term Effects of Botulinum Type A Neurotoxin on the Release of Noradrenaline from PC12 Cellsp. 321
Thoughts on Action of Botulinum Toxin Suggested by Reversibility of Heart Effectsp. 333
Proliferative T Cell Response to Botulinum Toxin Type A in Micep. 337
Limited Proteolysis of Tetanus Toxin Light Chain by Trypsin at Its C-Terminus Causes a 10-30-fold Decrease of Activity as Measured by Inhibition of Noradrenaline Release from Permeabilized Chromaffin Cellsp. 341
Functional Roles of Domains of Clostridial Neurotoxins: The Contribution from Studies on Aplysiap. 345
Dissecting the L Chains of Clostridial Neurotoxinsp. 361
Structure-Function Relationship of Botulinum and Tetanus Neurotoxinsp. 377
Low Resolution Model of Botulinum Neurotoxin Type Ap. 393
Structure of the Botulinum Neurotoxin Channels in Phospholipid Vesiclesp. 397
Purification, Characterization, and Oral Toxicity of Botulinum Type G Progenitor Toxinp. 401
Construction and Expression of the Genes for Neurotoxins and Non-Toxic Components in C. botulinum Types C and Ep. 405
Serological Subtypes of Botulinal Neurotoxinsp. 421
Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies to Botulinum Type A Neurotoxinp. 433
Antigenic Structure of Botulinum Neurotoxins: Similarity and Dissimilarity to the Toxin Associated with Infant Botulismp. 437
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISAs) to Detect Botulinum Toxins Using High Titer Rabbit Antiserap. 449
Development of a Molecular Engineered Vaccine for C. botulinum Neurotoxinsp. 463
Development of an Avian Antitoxin to Type A Botulinum Neurotoxinp. 467
Efficacy of Prophylactic and Therapeutic Administration of Antitoxin for Inhalation Botulismp. 473
Clinical Trial of Human Botulism Immune Globulinp. 477
Studies on the Relationship of Vitamin A Deficiency to the Antibody Response to Tetanus Toxoid in the Ratp. 483
Bacteriology and Pathology of Neurotoxigenic Clostridiap. 491
Epidemiological Aspects of Infant Botulism in California, 1976-1991p. 503
Reflections on a Half-Century of Foodborne Botulismp. 505
Contributions of the U.S. Army to Botulinum Toxin Researchp. 515
Altered Sensitivity of Recognition Sites for a Neurotransmitter in the Absence of Changes in Receptor Binding Parameters: Co-Sensitization of an Alternate Systemp. 521
Neurotoxins that Affect Central Serotoninergic Systemsp. 539
A Clinical Prefacep. 557
Disorders with Excessive Muscle Contraction: Candidates for Treatment with Intramuscular Botulinum Toxin ("Botox")p. 559
Improved Outcome after Repeated Injections of Botulinum Toxin for Treatment of Spasmodic Torticollis and Axial Dystonia: Experience with Japanese Botulinum Toxin Ap. 577
The Use of Botulinum Toxin in the Management of Cerebral Palsy in Pediatric Patientsp. 581
Use of Botulinum A Toxin in the Urethral Sphincterp. 589
Botulinum Toxin Treatment of Spasmodic Torticollis: Effects on Psychosocial Functionp. 591
Physiological Changes following Treatment of Speech and Voice Disorders with Botulinum Toxinp. 595
Treatment of Spasmodic Dysphonia with Botulinum Toxin: Clinical Experiences and Research Issuesp. 609
Preliminary Observations on the Diffusion of Botulinum Toxin from the Site of Injection in Laryngeal Musclesp. 617
Therapeutic Botulinum Toxin: Histologic Effects and Diffusion Propertiesp. 623
The Usefulness of Electromyography (EMG) in Botulinum Toxin Treatment of Cervical Dystoniap. 647
Development of Antibodies to Botulinum Toxin Type A in Patients with Torticollis Treated with Injections of Botulinum Toxin Type Ap. 651
Effects of Intramuscular Injection of Botulinum Toxin Type B in Nonhuman Primatesp. 655
Quality of Botulinum Toxin for Human Treatmentp. 657
Stability of Botulinum Toxin in Clinical Usep. 661
An Overview of Some Issues in the Licensing of Botulinum Toxinsp. 665
Appendix: Attendees to the International Conference on Botulinum and Tetanus Neurotoxinsp. 671
Indexp. 681
Table of Contents provided by Blackwell. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780306444128
ISBN-10: 0306444127
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 689
Published: 31st August 1993
Publisher: Springer Science+Business Media
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 25.4 x 17.8  x 3.81
Weight (kg): 3.44