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Biology of Disease - Maureen M. Dawson

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Published: 26th October 2006
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Book Narrative Biology of Disease is a text for undergraduate biomedical students who are intending to pursue a career in the medical support services. Written in an engaging manner, it is also an ideal reference for medical and clinical technicians and will be useful for students needing a broad overview of the biological basis of disease. Specific areas covered include haematology, immunology, and microbiology, along with genetic, cardiovascular, and diet-related disorders. Cancer and diseases of ageing are also included. Extensively illustrated throughout, the text is further supported by bullet-point summaries and revision questions. Biology of Disease also contains examples and case studies of common diseases, discussing preventative measures and treatments. Key Sales Points: - Summarizes the biological basis of common diseases. This ensures the students understand the basics of the common diseases they are likely to come across in biomedical/ medtech. profession - Case studies and clinical applications put theory in a medical context allowing the reader to relate the theory to real life situations - Self-test questions at the end of each chapter ensure the student has grasped and understood the most important concepts

"When you first pick up this book and peruse the pages it is immediately encouraging. The presentation and production values are very good, the diagrams and photographs look professional and it is a substantial volume, all of which suggests a worthwhile textbook." "I would have welcomed this book when I started out in the laboratory, as the books at that time were less welcoming and somewhat drier to read. I recommend this book to students and tutors as a text for any course on the biology of disease." British Journal of Biomedical Science, Volume 64, Number 1, 2007 "Overall, the book is an excellent introduction to the subject of pathology, disease and laboratory diagnostics, which would be ideal for undergraduate students on biomedical science and related degrees." Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education, 2007 "!an excellent introduction to the subject of pathology, disease and laboratory diagnostics, which would be ideal for undergraduate students on biomedical science and related degrees." Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education

Prefacep. xvii
Glossaryp. xix
The Nature and Investigation of Diseasesp. 1
Introductionp. 1
Characteristic Features of Diseasesp. 2
Etiologyp. 2
Pathogenesisp. 3
Manifestations of Diseasesp. 4
Outcome of a Diseasep. 5
Classification of Diseasesp. 6
Epidemiology of Diseasep. 7
Investigating Diseasesp. 8
Types of Pathology Laboratoriesp. 9
Role of Hospital Laboratory Testsp. 10
Hospital Laboratory Testsp. 14
Evaluation of Laboratory Testsp. 16
Reference Rangesp. 17
Quality of Test Results and Clinical Auditingp. 18
Summaryp. 21
Further Readingp. 22
Pathogens and Virulencep. 25
Introductionp. 25
Types of Pathogensp. 26
Prionsp. 26
Virusesp. 27
Bacteriap. 30
Protozoa, Fungi and Helminthsp. 30
Arthropods and Vertebratesp. 31
Virulence Factorsp. 33
Defensive Virulence Factorsp. 33
Offensive Virulence Factorsp. 34
Course of Infectionp. 37
Summaryp. 38
Further Readingp. 39
Infectious Diseases and Treatmentsp. 41
Introductionp. 41
Infections of the Skinp. 42
Infections of the Eyes, Ears and Central Nervous Systemp. 42
Infections of the Respiratory Systemp. 44
Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tractp. 46
Infections of the Urogenital Systemp. 48
Sepsis and Systemic Infectionsp. 53
Investigating Infectious Diseasesp. 54
Culturep. 54
Serological Testsp. 55
Biochemical and Molecular Biological Techniquesp. 56
Preventing Infectious Diseasesp. 59
Controlling the Spread of Pathogensp. 60
Treatment of Infectious Diseasesp. 60
Antiviral Drugsp. 60
Antibacterial Drugsp. 61
Antifungal, Antiprotozoal and Antihelminthic Drugsp. 64
Combination Therapyp. 66
Surgeryp. 66
Summaryp. 69
Further Readingp. 70
The Immune Systemp. 73
Introductionp. 73
Types of Immune Defensep. 74
Nonspecific Defensesp. 74
Interferonsp. 74
Complementp. 75
Nonspecific Cellsp. 75
Mononuclear Leukocytesp. 77
Inflammation and the Acute Phase Responsep. 77
Specific Immune Responsesp. 79
Roles of Humoral and Cell-Mediated Immunityp. 80
Humoral Immunityp. 80
Cell-Mediated Immunityp. 85
Small Lymphocytesp. 86
Production of a Specific Immune Responsep. 87
Humoral Immunityp. 89
Summaryp. 95
Further Readingp. 97
Disorders of the Immune Systemp. 99
Introductionp. 99
Immunodeficiency Diseasesp. 100
Primary Immunodeficiency Diseasep. 100
Autoimmune Disordersp. 110
Classification of Autoimmune Disordersp. 110
Autoimmune Disorders Affecting Endocrine Glandsp. 111
Antiglomerular Basement Membrane Diseasep. 113
Myasthenia Gravisp. 114
Rheumatoid Arthritisp. 115
Systemic Lupus Erythematosusp. 116
Immunological Hypersensitivityp. 118
Hypersensitivityp. 118
Hypersensitivityp. 121
Hypersensitivityp. 121
Delayed Type Hypersensitivityp. 122
Summaryp. 123
Further Readingp. 125
Transfusion and Transplantationp. 127
Introductionp. 127
Blood and Blood Products for Transfusionp. 128
The Discovery of the Blood Group Systemsp. 129
The ABO Blood Group System (ISBT 001)p. 132
The Antigens of the ABO Systemp. 133
Antibodies of the ABO Blood Group Systemp. 134
Consequences of ABO Incompatible Transfusionsp. 134
The Rh Blood Group System (ISBT 004)p. 135
Hemolytic Disease of the Newbornp. 136
Other Blood Group Systemsp. 138
Laboratory Determination of Blood Groupsp. 139
Role of Complement in Transfusion Reactionsp. 140
Hazards of Transfusionp. 141
Transfusion Related Acute Lung Injuryp. 142
Iron Overloadp. 142
Alloimmunizationp. 142
Graft versus Host Diseasep. 143
Infectionsp. 143
Screening of Blood Donorsp. 143
Transplantation of Solid Tissues and Organsp. 145
Immunological Rejection of Transplantsp. 145
Causes of Graft Rejectionp. 146
The HLA Systemp. 147
HLA Typingp. 148
Immunosuppressionp. 150
Hemopoietic Stem Cell Transplantationp. 152
Bone Marrow Transplantationp. 152
Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantationp. 153
Umbilical Cord Stem Cell Transplantationp. 153
Identification of Hemopoietic Stem Cellsp. 153
Summaryp. 154
Further Readingp. 155
Disorders of the Endocrine Systemp. 157
Introductionp. 157
Hormone Productionp. 159
Mechanisms of Hormonal Actionp. 162
Causes of Endocrine Disordersp. 164
The Pituitary Glandp. 165
Disorders of Pituitary Functionp. 167
Growth Hormone Disordersp. 169
Diagnosis and Treatment of Growth Hormone Disordersp. 171
Thyroid Hormone Disordersp. 172
Diagnosis and Treatment of Thyroid Disordersp. 174
Regulation of Blood Glucosep. 177
Diabetes Mellitusp. 178
Hypoglycemiap. 181
Disorders of the Adrenal Cortexp. 183
Addison's Diseasep. 184
Cushing's Syndromep. 185
Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasiap. 186
Conn's Syndromep. 187
Reproductive Hormonesp. 188
Disorders of Sex Hormonesp. 194
Summaryp. 198
Further Readingp. 200
Disorders of Water, Electrolytes and Urate Balancesp. 203
Introductionp. 203
Kidneysp. 204
Renal Function Testsp. 206
Renal Failurep. 206
Disorders of Water Homeostasisp. 208
Disorders of Na[superscript +] Homeostasisp. 210
Disorders of K[superscript +] Homeostasisp. 211
Disorders of Ca[superscript 2+] Homeostasisp. 212
Disorders of Phosphate Homeostasisp. 216
Disorders of Mg[superscript 2+] Homeostasisp. 218
Disorders of Urate Metabolismp. 219
Summaryp. 222
Further Readingp. 223
Disorders of Acid-Base Balancep. 225
Introductionp. 225
The Production and Transport of Carbon Dioxidep. 226
Buffering and the Excretion of H[superscript +]p. 227
Types of Acid-Base Disordersp. 230
Metabolic Acid-Base Disordersp. 230
Respiratory Acid-Base Disordersp. 231
Mixed Acid-Base Disordersp. 232
Investigating Acid-Base Disordersp. 233
Summaryp. 236
Further Readingp. 237
Diet and Diseasep. 239
Introductionp. 239
Diet and Nutritionp. 240
Nutrients and Energyp. 240
Carbohydratesp. 241
Lipidsp. 241
Proteinsp. 244
Waterp. 244
Vitaminsp. 245
Minerals and Trace Elementsp. 250
Nutritional Disordersp. 252
Protein-Energy Malnutritionp. 252
Obesityp. 254
Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosap. 258
Disorders of Vitamin Nutritionp. 259
Nutritional Disorders of Minerals and Trace Elementsp. 263
Investigating Nutritional Disordersp. 266
Protein-Energy Malnutritionp. 267
Obesityp. 267
Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosap. 267
Vitaminsp. 268
Minerals and Trace Elementsp. 270
General Management of Nutritional Disordersp. 271
Summaryp. 273
Further Readingp. 276
Disorders of the Gastrointestinal Tract, Pancreas, Liver and Gall Bladderp. 277
Introductionp. 277
The Gastrointestinal Tract and its Accessory Organsp. 278
Digestionp. 281
Mouthp. 282
Stomachp. 283
Small Intestinep. 285
Absorption of the Products of Digestionp. 289
Activities of the Large Intestinep. 295
The Small Intestine and Homeostasisp. 295
Hormonal Control of GIT Secretionsp. 296
Disorders of the GIT and Accessory Organsp. 297
Disorders of the Exocrine Pancreasp. 297
Disorders of the Liver, Gall Bladder and Bile Ductp. 298
Disorders of the Stomachp. 302
Disorders of the Small Intestinep. 306
Disorders of the Large Intestinep. 311
Summaryp. 312
Further Readingp. 313
Toxicologyp. 315
Introductionp. 315
Drug Action, Metabolism, Distribution and Excretionp. 316
Physiological Detoxification Mechanismsp. 318
Symptomatic Poisoningp. 321
Common Poisonsp. 321
Paracetamolp. 321
Aspirinp. 325
Ethanolp. 327
Methanolp. 331
Ethylene Glycolp. 331
Barbituratesp. 332
Carbon Monoxidep. 333
Paraquatp. 334
Metalsp. 335
Summaryp. 341
Further Readingp. 342
Disorders of the Bloodp. 345
Introductionp. 345
Blood Cells and Plateletsp. 346
Hemoglobinsp. 349
Key Properties of Hemoglobinp. 350
Embryonic and Fetal Hemoglobinsp. 351
Hemostasis and Blood Clottingp. 352
The Intrinsic Pathwayp. 353
The Extrinsic Pathwayp. 354
Common Final Pathwayp. 355
Prevention of Clottingp. 355
Dissolution of Clotsp. 356
Anemiasp. 356
Microcytic Anemiasp. 357
Macrocytic Anemiap. 359
Hemoglobinopathiesp. 361
Sickle Cell Anemiap. 362
The Thalassemiasp. 365
Glucose 6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency (G6PD)p. 368
Favismp. 369
Clinical Aspects of Clottingp. 370
Vitamin K and Anticoagulantsp. 370
Hemophiliap. 371
Thrombocytopenia and Thrombocytosisp. 372
Summaryp. 375
Further Readingp. 377
Disorders of the Cardiovascular Systemp. 379
Introductionp. 379
The Heart and Circulatory Systemsp. 380
Blood Vesselsp. 383
Arteriesp. 384
Veinsp. 386
Capillariesp. 386
Blood Pressurep. 386
Investigating Cardiac Function in Health and Diseasep. 389
The Electrocardiogram (ECG)p. 389
Echocardiographyp. 391
Cardiac Catheterization (Angiography)p. 391
Angiography and Radiographic Visualizationp. 391
Exercise Stress Testp. 391
Endocarditisp. 392
Abnormal Heart Rhythmsp. 392
Atrial Fibrillation and Flutterp. 393
Ventricular Tachycardiap. 393
Ventricular Fibrillationp. 394
Heart Blockp. 394
Cardic Failurep. 395
Investigationp. 395
Treatmentp. 395
Chronic Heart Failurep. 396
Acute Heart Failurep. 396
Ischemic Heart Diseasep. 396
Cardiomyopathiesp. 397
Dilated Congestive Cardiomyopathyp. 397
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathyp. 398
Restrictive Cardiomyopathyp. 398
Heart Valve Disordersp. 399
Heart Tumorsp. 399
Atherosclerosis or Arteriosclerosisp. 400
Anginap. 400
Cholesterol and Lipoproteinsp. 402
Myocardial Infarctionp. 404
Plasma Enzymes in Myocardial Infarctionp. 405
Treatmentp. 405
Coronary Bypass Surgeryp. 405
Pericardial Diseasesp. 406
Disorders of Arteries and Veinsp. 407
Peripheral Arterial Diseasep. 407
Aneurysmsp. 407
Aortic Dissectionp. 407
Strokep. 408
Varicose Veinsp. 409
Deep Vein Thrombosisp. 409
Clinical Problems Associated with Blood Pressurep. 410
Low Blood Pressure (Hypotension)p. 410
Shockp. 410
High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)p. 411
Summaryp. 412
Further Readingp. 414
Genetic Diseasesp. 415
Introductionp. 415
Genetics and DNAp. 416
DNA Replication and the Cell Cyclep. 417
Mitosis and Meiosisp. 418
Genotype and Phenotypep. 421
Inheritance and Mutationsp. 421
Sex-linked Genetic Diseasesp. 423
Inherited Gene Disordersp. 424
Consequences of an Enzyme Deficiencyp. 424
National Screening Programs for Inherited Diseasesp. 428
Chromosomes and the Human Karyotypep. 428
Fragile Sitesp. 430
Chromosomal Mutations or Aberrationsp. 432
Deletionsp. 433
Duplicationsp. 434
Inversionsp. 435
Translocationsp. 435
Variations in Chromosome Numbersp. 437
Aneuploidyp. 437
Euploidyp. 440
Detecting, Diagnosing and Screening Human Genetics Diseasesp. 441
Detection of Hereditary Diseasesp. 442
Summaryp. 445
Further Readingp. 446
Membrane, Organelle and Cytoskeletal Disordersp. 449
Introductionp. 449
Nucleus and Nucleocytoplasmic Transportp. 450
Clinical Aspects of Nucleocytoplasmic Transportp. 453
Plasma Membrane Disordersp. 453
Cystic Fibrosisp. 454
Mitochondrial Disordersp. 456
Causes of Mitochondrial Disordersp. 457
Diagnosis and Treatment of Mitochondrial Disordersp. 460
Peroxisomal Disordersp. 461
Diagnosis and Treatment of Peroxisomal Disordersp. 462
Lysosomal Disordersp. 463
Diagnosis and Treatment of Lysosomal Storage Disordersp. 465
Cytoskeletal Disordersp. 465
Muscular Dystrophiesp. 467
Hereditary Elliptocytosis and Spherocytosisp. 470
Summaryp. 471
Further Readingp. 473
Cancerp. 475
Introductionp. 475
Classification of Cancer Typesp. 476
Epidemiology of Cancerp. 476
Molecular Biology of Cancerp. 478
Oncogenesp. 478
Tumor Suppressor Genesp. 479
Causes of Cancerp. 480
Inherited Cancersp. 480
Chromosomes and Cancerp. 481
Chemical Carcinogensp. 482
Diet and Cancerp. 484
Radiation and Cancerp. 485
Viruses and Cancerp. 486
General Diagnosis of Cancerp. 487
Clinical Tests for Cancerp. 487
General Treatment of Cancerp. 492
Chemotherapyp. 493
Radiation Therapyp. 497
Immunotherapyp. 497
Specific Types of Cancersp. 498
Lung Cancerp. 498
Breast Cancerp. 500
Prostate Cancerp. 502
Colorectal Cancerp. 505
Leukemiasp. 507
Summaryp. 511
Further Readingp. 512
Aging and Diseasep. 515
Introductionp. 515
Aging of Cells, Tissues, Organs and Systemsp. 516
Cellsp. 516
Tissuesp. 516
Organsp. 516
Systemsp. 517
Causes of Agingp. 519
'Wear and Tear' Theoriesp. 519
Genome-Based Theoriesp. 521
Age-Related Diseasesp. 522
Cancerp. 522
Cardiovascular Diseasep. 522
Diabetes Mellitus Type 2p. 523
Cataractsp. 523
Arthritisp. 523
Parkinson's Diseasep. 523
Calorie Restriction and Agingp. 527
Investigations and Management of the Elderlyp. 527
Summaryp. 528
Further Readingp. 529
Case Study Discussionsp. 531
p. 531
p. 531
p. 531
p. 532
p. 532
p. 533
p. 533
p. 534
p. 535
p. 535
p. 536
p. 537
p. 537
p. 538
p. 538
p. 539
p. 539
p. 540
Answers to Questionsp. 541
p. 541
p. 541
p. 542
p. 542
p. 543
p. 543
p. 543
p. 544
p. 545
p. 545
p. 546
p. 546
p. 547
p. 548
p. 548
p. 549
p. 549
p. 550
Indexp. 551
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780748772100
ISBN-10: 0748772103
Audience: Tertiary; University or College
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 600
Published: 26th October 2006
Publisher: Taylor & Francis Ltd
Country of Publication: GB
Dimensions (cm): 27.6 x 21.2  x 3.2
Weight (kg): 1.44
Edition Number: 1