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Biology and Emotion : Problems in the Behavioural Sciences - Neil McNaughton

Biology and Emotion

Problems in the Behavioural Sciences

Paperback Published: 11th September 1989
ISBN: 9780521319386
Number Of Pages: 248

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The author describes an approach to the analysis of emotion that can be used independently of conventional emotion theories: that expression, feeling, and motivation can be considered in a scientific manner. As a central theme he argues that biological and, in particular, evolutionary considerations are useful in understanding the basic components of emotion, and he applies this idea to a wide variety of the phenomena of emotion. The resultant review should be useful as an undergraduate text in which the explanations are aimed at the nonspecialist. The specific conclusions should be of interest to anyone who conducts research on emotion, and particularly those who need a solid framework on which to base interdisciplinary studies.

Prefacep. xi
Acknowledgementsp. xv
Emotion since Darwinp. 1
What is an emotion?p. 1
A biological approach to emotion?p. 5
Darwin and 'the expression of the emotions in animals and man'p. 7
Cannon and the 'utility of the bodily changes in pain and great emotions'p. 8
James and feelings as the basis for emotionp. 9
Development of the emotionsp. 11
Learning and emotionp. 12
Cognition and emotionp. 13
Biology and emotionp. 13
Releasers and state-dependent reflexesp. 17
Apologiap. 17
Neuroscience and emotion--a brief digressionp. 17
Neurophysiology and emotionp. 18
Releasers and emotionp. 21
Reflexes and goal-directednessp. 22
Electrical stimulation of the brain and goal-directed behaviourp. 24
Electrical excitation versus natural excitabilityp. 28
The neural basis for the release of behaviourp. 28
Releasers, state-dependent reflexes and emotionp. 31
Purpose and emotionp. 33
Teleonomy, a redefinition of purposep. 33
Teleonomy versus teleologyp. 34
Emotions and teleonomyp. 36
Teleonomy and its implication for a unitary view of emotionp. 38
Expression: a window on the emotions?p. 40
Why do emotions produce expressionsp. 40
Are human expressions innate or acquired?p. 42
The description of expressionsp. 45
Identical forms of expression with different teleonomyp. 47
Is there a one-to-one link between an expression and an emotion?p. 48
Are physiological changes epiphenomena of emotion?p. 51
Why do physiological changes accompany emotion?p. 51
Could physiological changes play a role in emotion?p. 52
Autonomic and hormonal discharge in emotionp. 53
Emotional feeling after the elimination of peripheral feedbackp. 55
Do visceral reactions differ in different emotions?p. 57
Emotion-specific release of hormonesp. 57
Emotion-specific changes in autonomic responsep. 59
Do visceral reactions determine what emotion is reported?p. 62
Conclusionp. 65
Somatic influences on the emotionsp. 67
Do physiological changes determine emotion?p. 67
Effects of peripheral sympathectomyp. 67
Non-surgical manipulation of the sympathetic systemp. 69
Emotion after the removal of hormonal influencesp. 70
Secretions of the pituitary-adrenal cortex as controllers of emotionp. 72
False feedback experimentsp. 72
A role for heart rate changesp. 74
Conclusionp. 75
Optimal foraging and the partial reinforcement effect: a model for the teleonomy of feelings?p. 77
Teleonomy, physiological change and feelingp. 77
How can you assess teleonomy of behaviour?p. 78
Optimality and the partial reinforcement extinction effect (PREE)p. 79
Omission of reward and the generation of frustrationp. 81
Accounts of the PREE in terms of frustrationp. 83
Simple associative accounts of the PREEp. 84
Attention, aftereffects, toughening up and frustrationp. 87
Behavioural separation of after-effects, stimuli of frustration and toughening upp. 87
Pharmacological separation of after-effects, stimuli of frustration and toughening upp. 88
The teleonomy of feelingsp. 90
Do emotions mature or differentiate?p. 93
Teleonomy and procreationp. 93
Emotional development and emotional maturationp. 94
Do innate emotional expressions imply innate emotions?p. 95
Immediate effects of separation from parentsp. 96
Distinct emotional reactions in the neonatep. 97
The effects of perinatal manipulations on adult behaviourp. 100
Long-term effects of early environment on adult behaviourp. 101
Do emotions mature and differentiate?p. 103
Cognition, learning and emotionp. 105
What place has learning in the analysis of emotion?p. 105
Radical behaviourism and cognitive learning theoryp. 107
Limitations on the valid use of cognitive terms in learning theoryp. 109
The use of emotion words without colloquial implicationsp. 111
The development of two-process theories of learningp. 111
Emotion and the release of species-specific behaviourp. 115
Emotion as an antidote to motivationp. 118
Motivation versus emotionp. 121
Emotion as a critical aspect of instrumental conditioningp. 124
Conclusionsp. 128
Interaction of the components of emotionp. 130
Dialectical and non-dialectical interactions in emotionp. 130
The influence of the face on emotionsp. 132
Facial expressiveness as a personality characteristicp. 135
Autonomic reactions and achievementp. 137
Hormone-behaviour interactionsp. 138
Invisible interactionsp. 140
Some implications for the study of emotionp. 140
Of mice and menp. 143
From mouse to monkey to manp. 143
The lachrymose apep. 145
Separation distress--a general emotion?p. 148
Where do the innate human expressions come from?p. 150
Effects of electrical stimulation of the brain in humansp. 153
If rats are like little furry men, are mice like diminutive rats?p. 155
Is there frustration in rats and humans?p. 159
Cognition and corticosteroidsp. 162
Emotionality in rat and manp. 164
Conclusionp. 167
Biology and emotion: some conclusionsp. 169
What is an emotion?p. 169
A biological approach to emotion?p. 173
Specification of emotionsp. 175
Darwin as the father of the psychology of emotionp. 175
Emotion, drive and state-dependent reflexesp. 176
Teleonomy and emotionp. 178
Comparison of the components of emotional reactionp. 179
Development, learning and emotionp. 181
The way forwardp. 182
A specific examplep. 185
Envoip. 191
Glossaryp. 192
Notesp. 196
Referencesp. 204
Indexp. 219
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780521319386
ISBN-10: 0521319382
Series: Problems in the Behavioural Sciences
Audience: Professional
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 248
Published: 11th September 1989
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Country of Publication: GB
Dimensions (cm): 22.23 x 14.61  x 1.91
Weight (kg): 0.32